The Rise of Totalitarian Leaders…..

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Transcript The Rise of Totalitarian Leaders…..

The Rise of
In Eastern Europe, Democracy is failing.
1. Little tradition of political democracy
2. Many illiterate peasants
3. Much land dominated by large landowners who
feared peasant uprisings
4. Ethnic conflicts
Benito Mussolini
• Leader of National Fascist Party in Italy
• Came to power in 1922, with the “March on
Rome” (a coup d’etat)
• King Victor Emmanuel III made him Prime
• Officially shared power w/King
–In reality… Mussolini was the fascist dictator
1922, started calling himself
“Il Duce”
Official title - "His
Excellency Benito
Mussolini, Head of
Government, Duce of
Fascism, and Founder of
the Empire"
Mussolini’s Rule - Fascism
No Freedom of Speech
Outlawed all political parties EXCEPT fascism
Created OVRA – secret police
Controlled mass media
Fascist Youth groups formed
Gave Catholic Church independent Vatican City
Stressed family as pillar of society
– Women foundation of society (homemakers & mothers)
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
VI Lenin
As leader of Communist Party, established USSR
After WWI peasants began hoarding food (not comm)
This combined with a drought = near disaster
March 1921 Lenin begins New Economic Policy (NEP)
– Modified capitalism
– Peasants & small business could operated freely
– Saved USSR from complete economic disaster
1924 – Lenin Dies
• Who will lead the USSR????
• To be voted on by 7 member Politboro…
• Power struggle btw Trotsky & Stalin
–Old Bolsheviks supported Trotsky
–As General Secretary, Stalin controlled regional,
district, city & town appointments of communist
officials, he was VERY powerful
• Used this power to out Old Bolsheviks from Politboro &
gain control of USSR
5 Year Economic Plans
Collectivization – no private
Land owned by govt –
worked by peasants
1930 – 10M peasant
households collectivized
1934 – 26M
Removal of anyone ‘against’ Stalin
1st targeted Old Bolsheviks
Then – army officers, diplomats, union officials,
party members, intellectuals…
Approx. 8 million arrested
Many sent to Siberia  Gulag Archipelago
SP Gen. Francisco Franco led rebellion against
Dem govt (1936)
Germany – helped Franco (wanted to “test” all
of its new weapons & revived air force)
USSR – helped SP govt
Franco won