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Transcript Unit11Day2-Totalitarianism

Interwar Period: Years of Crisis 1919-1939

World Civilizations

The Rise of Totalitarianism

The Ineffectiveness of the League of Nations

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No control of major conflicts.

No progress in disarmament.

No effective military force.

Hyperinflation—German’s Economy in Shambles after WWI

Weimar Republic: Corruption in 1920’s Berlin

Germany was taken over by corruption, chaos and Communist uprisings. Decadence and anarchy reigned and everyone seemed to be at war with one another. In addition the state was under a constant threat, being unarmed and unsafe in the neighbor of steadily strengthening Soviet Union. This was the situation when the National Socialists (Nazis) began their struggle.

The Great Depression

The Great Depression

Causes Effects Long-Term

 World economies connected   Huge war debts Europe relies on American loans & investments  Prosperity built on borrowed money


    US stock market crashes Banks demand loan repayments Banking system collapses American trade declines / no longer loaning $


 Millions unemployed   Citizens lose faith in democracy and capitalism Nations turn toward authoritarian leaders  Gov’ts take emergency action to save their economies


     Nazis take control of Germany Fascism comes to power in other countries Social welfare programs Japan expands into East Asia WWII begins

Treaty of Versailles Black Tuesday 1929 -

stock market crashes

Great Depression during 1930s Total Control of State by a Dictator Increasing influence of new political parties that emphasize state control

For example: Communism, Nazism, Fascism

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What is it??

Describes a government that takes total, centralized state control over every aspect of public and PRIVATE life.

Government establishes complete control of all aspects of the state (political, military, economy, social, cultural)

Highly nationalistic (flags, salutes, rallies, uniforms)

Strict controls and laws

Military state (secret police, army, military)

Censorship (opposing literature and ideas)

Propaganda (media – radio, newspapers, posters)

One leader (dictator); charismatic

Total conformity of people to ideas and leader

Terror and Fear



Communism Fascism

*These theories, specifically Communism and Fascism, are completely different theories that are bitterly opposed; however they exhibit the same behavior

I am Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union from 1922-1953.

What is Communism?

LEFT WINGbased on theory by Karl Marxrevolutionary idea of a political,

economic and social system that creates a “classless society”

state ownership and control of the

means of production (no private ownership)

Soviet Communism or “Stalinism”,

was more of a totalitarian and military state combined with elements of communism

Totalitarianism: Stalin’s Case Study

Stalin takes firm control of the government.

He develops a personality

cult around him, nearly deifies Lenin and makes himself Lenin’s successor. He had eliminated all enemies.

Stalin was also good at

changing history.



"Don't chat! Chatting leads to treason"

Totalitarianism: Stalin’s Case Study

Peasants are forced onto collective farms, blaming kulaks (wealthy

landowning farmers) for problems.

Collectivization was an initial disaster. Crop yields were way

down and peasants resisted. They were forced to give up property, couldn’t sell excess grain, and were making less than before. Many engaged in sabotage.

Many who resisted were resettled in labor camps (gulags),

where 5 out of 6 of them died.

The low grain production was also used to punish people. In

Ukraine, where resistance was high, grain was forcibly taken and withheld from the people.

Millions die of starvation… on purpose. Stalin used it as a tool

to empty out the Ukraine.

Ukrainian Children


I am Benito Mussolini the leader (Il Duce) of Italy from 1922 to 1943.

What is Fascism?

RIGHT WINGintense nationalism and elitismtotalitarian control interests of the state more important

than individual rights

maintain class system and private

ownership Interesting Fact: Fascism name was derived from the fasces, an ancient Roman symbol of authority consisting of a bundle of rods and an ax

Fascist Principles

        Anti-individualistic Anti-democratic Anti-egalitarian (fairness, equality) Anti-capitalist Anti-pacifist Anti-internationalist Anti-liberal Anti-intellectual

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The Rise of Mussolini

Italy after the war   Upset with peace treaty Economic and political turmoil Fiery Speaker  When speaking he commands attention    1919 – organized veterans and other upset Italians into the Fascist party Promised to end corruption and bring order to Italy Promised to take Italy back to the days of Ancient Rome http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=wVSalOAosew

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The Rise of Mussolini

Seizing Power 1922 Mussolini organized “combat squads” called the Black Shirts.

 Through terror and intimidation, got rid of elected officials in N. Italy

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Mussolini’s Italy

Il Duce – “The Leader” In theory Italy remained a parliamentary monarchy   In reality Italy was a dictatorship upheld by fascist violence and terror Mussolini feels that democracy is weak Economic Policy  Fascism allows capitalism    Economy comes under state control – corporate state Economy will improve at the expense of workers “The Trains always run on time”

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Mussolini’s Italy

Social Policies Facism =Glory of the state, not the individual Slogan – “Believe! Obey! Fight!” Men encouraged to be ruthless warriors Women called to win the battle of motherhood…14 children medal  Gold wedding bands traded in for iron ones that represented their contribution to a stronger nation

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Mussolini’s Italy

Fascist Youth Strict discipline – instill strong sense of patriotism Youth group toughened children Taught them to obey strict military discipline Taught that Mussolini was always right What is our American equivalent?

I am Adolf Hitler the leader (der Fuhrer) or dictator of Germany from 1933 to 1945.

What is Nazism?

extremely fascist , nationalistic, and


based on beliefs of the National Socialist

German Workers Party

belief in the racial superiority of the

Aryan, the “master race”

belief that all Germans should have

“lebensraum” or living space in Europe

Violent hatred towards Jews and blamed

Germany’s problems on them

Supported by middle class, business

leaders, military


 Fascism taken to its extreme form.

 Racist and anti-Semitic elements that did not appear in Italian fascism.

Mein Kampf (1924)

The title means

My Struggle

, and it expounds on Hitler’s anti-Semitism, worship of power, scorn for morality, and plan for world domination. Hitler wrote it in prison after a failed attempt to overthrow the German government

GESTAPO : the Secret State Police

SS (Schutzstaffel): Defense Corps “black shirts”, an elite guard unit formed out of the SA

SA (Sturmabteilung): Stormtroopers "brown-shirts" early private Nazi army that protected leaders and opposed rival political parties

Lebensraum (living space): concept that emphasized need for territorial expansion of Germany into east

Wehrmacht: German army Luftwaffe: air force

HJ (Hitler Jugend): Hitler Youth

Einstazgruppen: units; before the Final Solution was adopted these were used.

Nazi Death Squad; mobile killing

This Nazi propaganda poster reads, ‘Behind the enemy powers: the Jew.

“The Eternal Jew” Depiction of a Jew holding gold coins in one hand and a whip in the other. Under his arm is a map of the world, with the imprint of the hammer and sickle. Posters like this promoted a sharp rise in anti-Semitic feelings, and in some cases violence against the Jewish community.

Lil’ Hitler

 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aytQJz dhILM