Transcript Introduction to Psychology
What Is Stress?
Your definition… Stimulus or Response? Or interaction?
Stressor — (stimulus) event or situation that triggers coping adjustments Stress reaction – How do you respond to stress? What are your “symptoms?” physiological, cognitive, emotional, behavioral Stress as process – interaction between event, perception, and reaction
The Physiology of Stress
Walter Cannon (1932) Fight-or-flight reaction Outpouring of substances that prepare an organism to defend against a threat Adaptive for our ancestors (but contributes to stress-related illnesses in modern times)
Brain and Endocrine System in Stress
Sympathoadreno-Medullary (SAM) System The body’s initial, rapid-acting response to stress -- epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical (HPAC) System The body’s second response to stress - secretion of corticosteroid adrenal cortex hormones from the
Polygraph or Biofeedback machine—
skin’s resistance to electricity) records several arousal responses, including heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate, and GSR (measure of the
– (e.g., saliva) to test for catecholamine and cortisol production Subjective Measures Stress questionnaires
Variability in stress response
Stress reactivity: people vary in their sweating, pupil dilation and changes in heart rate when stressed.
Stress recovery: People vary in the speed with which they return to normal after being stressed.
Stress resistance: People vary in their stress responses due to coping, social support etc
Sources of Stress
List your top five stressors Stressors Common hassles School demands Noise – residents near airports have higher BP & stress Crowding Relationship issues Sleep deprivation Job stress (next slides)
Job-related stress costs: absenteeism reduced productivity worker compensation benefits
Research study: “Overload in Working Mothers”
BCBS workers Measures: Urine samples (to look for metabolites of stress hormones) Daily mood scale Results: feel stressed (esp w/ children at home) High stress (low perceived control + high demand) increased urinary neurohormones
Sources of Stress
Stressors (continued) Major life events (e.g., divorce, moves) Catastrophic stressors (next slide)
Sources of Stress: Catastrophes
Oklahoma City, 9/11, Katrina, etc. Increased incidence of hypertension, heart disease, and other stress-related ailments Rates of depression, anxiety, and other psychological disorders increase
New Orleans Suicide Rate May Be Up
Associated Press - September 14, 2006 – New Orleans' suicide rate appears to have gone up in the first six months after Hurricane Katrina evacuees were allowed back home
How does a potential stressor lead to stress?
Perception and stress “I have had a great many troubles in my life… And most never happened…” Mark Twain
Many situations are not inherently stressful… depends on appraisal: • •
Primary appraisal meaning — determination of an event’s Secondary appraisal — evaluation of one’s ability to meet the demands of a challenging event
Cognitive appraisals are extremely susceptible to one’s current state of mood, health, motivation
Stress and Illness (next powerpoint)