Chapter 13, Emotion - DeForest Area School District

Download Report

Transcript Chapter 13, Emotion - DeForest Area School District

Unit VIII Test, Motivation and
Test information:
About 40 m.c. questions and
several essays
Study Reminders
• The textbook website has flashcards and
practice questions after each module and at
the end of the unit
• The course website also has the learning
• Mods 37-40
Instinct/evolutionary 391
• Instinct complex, unlearned
behavior exhibited by all members of
a species
• Ex: bears hibernating
• Ex: birds building nests
Do humans have instincts?
• After Darwin explained ho
evolution works
psychologists tried to link
every human behavior to
an instinct
• Few if any human instincts
What we know: Genes
predispose you to
display specific
• This emphasizes
biological factors
Drive-Reduction Theory, 391
A physiological need creates an
aroused tension state (a drive) that
motivates an organism to satisfy the
need (Hull, 1951).
Drive reduction theory and Homeostasis, 391
The physiological aim of drive reduction is
homeostasis, the maintenance of a steady internal
state (e.g., maintenance of steady body
(Food Deprived)
Drive Reduction and Incentives,
• A positive or negative
stimulus that motivates
• Fresh baked pizza to a
hungry person as an
example (if they like pizza!)
• Or money for a motivated
Optimum Arousal Theory, 392
Human motivation aims to seek optimum levels of
arousal, not to eliminate it.
Young monkeys and children are known to explore the
Optimal arousal explains why we exhibit curiosity, taking
risks, and exploring. These reduce boredom.
Randy Faris/ Corbis
Harlow Primate Laboratory, University of Wisconsin
Optimal arousal and the Yerkes
Dodson law 392
• There’s an optimal
level of arousal for
• Too much or not
enough lead to
lesser results
Hierarchy of Needs Theory, 393
Abraham Maslow (1970)
suggested that certain needs
have priority over others.
Physiological needs like
breathing, thirst, and hunger
come before psychological
needs such as achievement,
self-esteem, and the need for
Challenging orthodoxy
• Freud’s view of motivation was physiological.
• Skinner saw motivation as nothing more than
“repertoires of behaviors” that are determined
by reinforcements or punishments
• Maslow challenged these views: we are
motivated by forces from within by our
wishes and plans.
Hierarchy of Needs, 393
Joe Skipper/ Reuters/ Corbis
Mario Tama/ Getty Images
David Portnoy/ Getty Images for Stern
Menahem Kahana/ AFP/ Getty Images
Hurricane Survivors
The hypothalamus, 398
The hypothalamus
controls eating and
other body
functions (body
temp, thirst, sexual
behavior, etc.)
The Physiology of Hunger
Body Chemistry and the Brain
Set-Point Theory, 398
Manipulating the lateral
and the ventromedial
hypothalamus alters the
body’s “weight
If weight is lost, food intake
increases and energy
expenditure decreases.
If weight is gained, the
opposite takes place.
Ostracism and brain activity, 414
• Social exclusion leads to
demoralization, depression,
and at times nasty behavior.
• Can lead to changes in brain
• One example is cyber
ostracism: unanswered
email leads one to develop
increased activity in the
anterior cingulate cortex
Social network influence, 416
• Social networking
connections to
people we already
• It also consumes a
lot of our time.
Healthy disclosure, 417
• Narcissism:
• those who score
high on this
measure of selfesteem are active
on social
networking sites.
Module 82
Flow & Rewards, 827
Flow is the experience between no work and a
lot of work. Flow marks immersion into one’s
Csikszentmihalyi, 828
• People who “flow”
in their work
(artists, dancers,
composers etc.) are
driven less by
extrinsic rewards
(money, praise,
promotion) and
more by intrinsic
82-5: Human Factors, 840
Human Factor Psychologists design machines
that assist our natural perceptions.
Courtesy of General Electric
Photodisc/ Punchstock
The knobs for the stove burners on the right are easier to
understand than those on the left.
The Interviewer Illusion, 831
Richard Nisbett: Interviewers
often overrate their
Intention vs. Habits: Intensions matter, but longlasting habits matter even more.
Successful Employees: Interviewers are more
likely to talk about those employees that turned
out successful.
Presumptions about Candidates: Interviewers
presume (wrongly) that what we see (candidate)
is what we get.
Preconceptions: An interviewer’s prior
knowledge about the candidate may affect her
360 degree feedback, 833
Appraising performance from multiple sources
results in two things: 1) employee retention,
and 2) the encouragement of better
Achievement motives, 833
Achievement Motivation
a desire for significant
Desire for control
for mastery of things, people, ideas
or skills
for attaining a high standard
Defined by Henry Murray, 1938
Duckworth and grit, 834
• Angela Duckworth:
this is essential for
• Passion and
perseverance in
pursuing long term
• Modules 41-42 and 83
James-Lange Theory, 421
William James and Carl
Lange proposed an
idea that was
diametrically opposed
to the common-sense
view. The James-Lange
Theory proposes that
physiological activity
precedes the emotional
Cannon-Bard Theory
Walter Cannon and
Phillip Bard
questioned the JamesLange Theory and
proposed that an
stimulus and the
body's arousal take
place simultaneously.
Two-Factor Theory (cognitive
labeling), 422
Stanley Schachter and
Jerome Singer
proposed yet another
theory which suggests
our physiology and
cognitions create
emotions. Emotions
have two factors–
physical arousal and
cognitive label.
Spillover effect, 422
Arousal from one event influences your
emotional perception of the next event
Example: after an invigorating
run you find a message on your
phone that you got that longsought job offer. You are much
more excited than you would be
if it was after waking up from a
Cognition and Emotion
Cognition May Not Proceed
Emotion: Zajonc, LeDoux & Lazarus
• Robert Zajonc
• LeDoux’s high and low road
Robert Zajonc’s theory
• Zajonc (zee-ons) says some
emotion occurs before
• For example, likes, dislikes
and fears all involve no
conscious thinking
Cognition and Emotion
Cognition May Not Proceed
Emotion: Zajonc, LeDoux & Lazarus
• Lazarus
Cognition and Emotion, 423
The brain’s shortcut for emotions
Richard Lazarus, 424
• Emotional
• He basically agrees
responses can
with Schacter and
occur without
• There’s a labeling
• We often
of an event.
“appraise” things
without consciously
thinking of them.
Embodied Emotion
Emotions and the Autonomic
Nervous System
Emotions, fear, and the Limbic System
A. most human fears are learned
1. Biology predisposes us to learn some fears
2. The amygdala associates fear with certain
situations (part of the limbic system)
3. A limbic system response deep in the brain
Lie Detector
machine commonly used in attempts to
detect lies
measures several of the physiological
responses accompanying emotion
heart rate
blood pressure
breathing changes
On what theory does the
polygraph rest?
• Changes in physiological
responses to questions
indicate deception.
Guilty knowledge: only
the person with
knowledge of the crime
would respond
physiologically to the
relevant questions.
What are several problems with
the polygraph?
• 1. Responses could indicate nervousness or
• 2. It more often labels the innocent guilty
than the guilty innocent
• 3. Pathological liars can defeat it
Gender and emotion detection, 434435
• Women are generally better than men at
detecting emotional cues.
• Also better at spotting a phony couple.
• Women are more expressive when
describing felt emotion.
• Women more likely to describe themselves
as empathic, having an emotional
understanding of others’ feelings
• And they actually are more open to feelings.
Emotional Expression is universal,
When culturally diverse people were shown basic
facial expressions, they did fairly well at
recognizing them (Ekman & Matsumoto, 1989).
Elkman & Matsumoto, Japanese and
Caucasian Facial Expression of Emotion
Culture, gestures and facial expressions
1. Gestures/ hand signals differ from culture
to culture
2. All peoples interpret facial expressions
similarly: genetic similarity
Gestures are not universal, 435
• Thumb and forefinger:
• Most countries, money
• France, something is
• Mediterranean countries,
vulgar gesture
Facial Feedback Hypothesis
1. Relates to the James-Lange theory of
2. Physical reactions to events are the cause
of the emotion.
3. In our class experiment: those in the
“teeth” group should rate the cartoons as
more funny as indicated by a higher mean
(ave.) Likert scale score. Did they?
What does the research say?
• McCanne & Anderson,
1987: Experiments
“yielded data consistent
with the hypothesis that
facial muscle activity
contributes to the
experience of emotions.”
• This is known as the facial
feedback effect
Catharsis Hypothesis
– emotional release
– catharsis hypothesis
• “releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy)
relieves aggressive urges
Catharsis research
Expressing anger breeds more anger,
and through reinforcement it is habitforming.
It is only helpful to express it when you
first wait for it to subside and then deal
with the situation later in a civil manner.
Feel-Good, Do-Good Phenomenon
When we feel happy
we are more willing
to help others.
People’s tendency to
be helpful when
already in a good
Relative deprivation
Happiness is not only relative to our past, but
also to our comparisons with others.
Relative Deprivation is the perception that we
are relatively worse off than those we compare
ourselves with.
Experiencing Emotion, 851
Adaptation-Level Phenomenon 851
tendency to form judgements relative to a
“neutral” level
brightness of lights
volume of sound
level of income
defined by our prior experience
Relative Deprivation 852
perception that one is worse off relative to
those with whom one compares oneself
Predictors of Happiness, 852
Why are some people generally more happy
than others?