EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Edition in Modules) David Myers
Transcript EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Edition in Modules) David Myers
Physiology of Emotion
Emotions are our body’s adaptive
a response of the whole
Does your heart
you are afraid...
or are you afraid
because you feel
Plutchik’s Basic Emotions
1) Does physiological arousal
precede or follow your
2) Does cognition (thinking)
precede emotion (feeling)?
When you become happy, your heart
starts beating faster. First comes
conscious awareness, then comes
activity precedes the
Brain in a jar?
• “Without the bodily states following
on the perception, the latter would
be purely cognitive in form; pale,
colorless, destitute of emotional
warmth. We might then see the
bear, and judge it best to run... But
we should not actually feel afraid.”
(William James, 1890)
Proposed that an
stimulus and the
body's arousal take
Schachter and Singer’s TwoFactor Theory
Our physiology and
Emotions have two
arousal and cognitive
Two factory theory on the psych
Figure 13.1 Theories of emotion
Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers
We know that emotions involve
Some of these responses are very
noticeable (butterflies in our stomach
when fear arises), but others are more
difficult to discern (neurons activated
in the brain).
Emotions and the Autonomic
During an emotional experience, our autonomic
nervous system mobilizes energy in the body that
Arousal and Performance
Arousal in short spurts is adaptive. We
perform better under moderate arousal, but
optimal performance varies with task
Physiological responses related to the
emotions of fear, anger, love, and boredom are
M. Grecco/ Stock Boston
Excitement and fear involve a similar
Physical responses, like finger temperature and
movement of facial muscles, change during fear, rage,
The amygdala shows differences in activation during
the emotions of anger and rage. Activity of the left
hemisphere (happy) is different from the right
(depressed) for emotions.
Cognition and Emotion
What is the connection between how we
think (cognition) and how we feel
Can we change our emotions by changing
Cognition Can Define Emotion
An arousal response to one event spills over into
our response to the next event.
AP Photo/ Nati Harnik
Arousal from a soccer match can fuel anger, which
may lead to rioting.
Cognition Does Not Always Precede
A subliminally presented happy face can encourage
subjects to drink more than when presented with an
angry face (Berridge & Winkeilman, 2003).
Emotions are felt directly through the amygdala (a)
or through the cortex (b) for analysis.
Cognition Does Not Always Precede
When fearful eyes were subliminally presented to
subjects, fMRI scans revealed higher levels of
activity in the amygdala (Whalen et al. 2004).
Courtesy of Paul J. Whalen, PhD, Dartmouth
Two Routes to Emotion
Zajonc and LeDoux emphasize that some emotions are
immediate, without conscious appraisal. Lazarus,
Schachter, and Singer emphasize that appraisal also
Up to age 18, did you ever physically
Did [the deceased] threaten to harm
you in any way?
Relevant > Control --> Lie
Judged innocent by polygraph
Judged guilty by polygraph
1/3 of innocent
1/4 of guilty
Is 70% accuracy good?
Assume 5% of 1000 employees actually
test all employees
285 will be wrongly accused
What about 95% accuracy?
Assume 1 in 1000 employees actually guilty
test all employees (including 999 innocents)
50 wrongly declared guilty
1 of 51 testing positive are guilty (~2%)
So…how good are you at lying?
• Using the first finger of your dominant
hand, simply draw a capital letter Q on
• Pay attention to how you drew it.
• High self-monitors tend to draw the letter Q in a
way in which it could be seen by someone facing
them with the tail facing to the left.
• Low self-monitors tend to draw the letter Q in a
way in which it could be read by themselves with
the tail facing to the right.
• Tend to be concerned with how
other people see them.
• They are happy being the
center of attention, can easily
adapt their behavior to suit the
situation in which they find
themselves, and are skilled at
manipulating how others see
• As a result, they tend to be
good at lying.
• Come across as being the
"same person" in different
• Their behavior is guided
more by their inner feelings
and values, and they are
less aware of their impact
on those around them.
• They also tend to lie less in
life, and therefore are not as
skilled at deceit as high selfmonitors.
Did you lie about the Q?
• Dr. Wiseman… Over time, I have noticed that a
small number of people, upon hearing what the
test is all about, quickly convince themselves
that they traced the letter Q in the opposite
direction to the way they actually drew it. These
people are able to ignore the evidence right in
front of them; they twist the facts to fit the type of
person they want to be. As a result, the test
provides a rough indicator of how good you are
at deceiving both yourself and others.
I bet you think you are good at
So how good are you at detecting lies?
According to Ekman…
“…no better than chance.”
That means you are WRONG as often as
you are right,….about half the time.
• Consider this when conducting your
(7th Edition in Modules)
Henderson State University
Worth Publishers, © 2008
Opponent Process Theory
• Opponent process theory suggests that
any given emotion also has an opposed
emotion. (Fear/Relief or
• Activation of one member of the pair
automatically suppresses the opposite
• But the opposing emotion can serve to
diminish the intensity of the initial emotion.
• Solomon and Corbit (1974)
– The opponent-process theory states that
when one emotion is experienced, the other is
suppressed. For example, if you are
frightened by a mean dog, the emotion of fear
is expressed and relief is suppressed. If the
fear-causing stimulus continues to be present,
after a while the fear decreases and the relief
Opponent Process Theory
– Stimulus (object, event, or thought)
– Appraisal of how this affects your well-being
(consciously or unconsciously)
– Emotion (fear, anger, happiness, …)
– Physiological responses and behavior
• For an emotion to occur, it is necessary to
first think about the situation.