Islamic Empires in Asia

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Transcript Islamic Empires in Asia

Islamic Empires in Asia
The Ottoman Empire- Anatolia
The Rise of the Ottomans
 Ghazis Came
warriors for Islam
to Anatolia (Turkey) to escape Mongols
 Osman-
a ghazi leader, fought successful
campaigns against Byzantines
 His
tribe became known as the Ottomans
 Took
over much of Anatolia
 Janissaries– highly trained and educated slave
soldiers for Ottoman sultan
 Christian
slaves, forced to convert to Islam
 Timur
(Mongolian ruler) challenged Ottoman
 Claimed
to be descendant of Ghengis Khan
 Made Ottomans return land they had taken from other
ghazi rulers
 Mehmed
II became sultan
 Captured
Constantinople from Byzantines, made it the
Ottoman capital (Istanbul)
 Suleyman
was the greatest Ottoman sultan
 Expanded
empire to eastern Europe, western Asia,
north Africa.
Ottoman Government and Society
Social classes– lots of social mobility
Small ruling class vs. Reaya (the masses)
The millet system
Separate religious communities under general control of sultan
 Each community had own laws, customs, taxes, and courts.
Slow decline begins after Suleyman’s death
Economic problems– lost control of Silk and Spice routes
Europeans found new trade routes that bypassed the Turks, ended their
trade monopoly
Corruption & Rebellions
 European expansion
France took Egypt
Russia took Crimean Peninsula
Lost lands in the Balkans (Greece, Serbia)
Ottoman Empire officially ended in 1923 when Turkey
established itself as a republic
The Safavid Empire- Persia
The Rise of the Safavids
Safavid Persia- modern-day Iran
 Safī od-Dīn
Shifted from Sunni to Shi‘ah
Persecuted by Sunni
Military group that fought back against Sunni persecution
 Well known for the red hats they wore
 Fought for the Safavids
Esmā’īl’s religious policy
Brought all of Iran and some of Iraq under his rule, took title of
Shah (king of kings)
 Declared Shi‘ah official religion to develop distinct Persian
identity and unify the nation
Military reforms by Abbas the Great
Slave soldiers who were loyal to the shah
 Modeled army after the Ottomans
The height of the empire
Recaptured lost territory from Uzbeks
 Policies of economic growth– encouraged manufacturing and
foreign trade
Empire declined, lack of competent rulers
 Safavid empire ended in 1736.
The Mughal Empire- India
The Origin of the Mughal Empire
 1300s:
Turkish Muslims controlled India
 Rajputs- Indian warrior princes
 Began
to challenge power of the Delhi sultans
 Outsiders
saw India as weak, open to attack
 Bābur “the Tiger”
 Descendant
of Timur
 Captured Delhi and surrounding region
The Growth of Mughal Power
Babur’s grandson; the greatest Mughal emperor
Religious policy
Tolerant of all religions
 Established Divine Faith that blended elements of Islam,
Hinduism, Jainism, Christianity, and other religions
Supported the arts
Architecture blended Persian, Islamic, and Hindu styles
Economy and trade
Improved tax systems
 Many resources for trade
 Sea routes to Asia
A New Religion
New religion blended Islam & Hinduism
 No idols
 Less rigid social system
Became militant and enemies of Mughal Empire and Muslims
The Height of the Mughal Empire
 Shah
 Extravagant
ruler, spent lavishly on buildings such as
the Taj Mahal
 The
Taj Mahal was a tomb for his dead wife, was made of
solid marble and inlaid with precious gems
 Mughals
 Huge
were also engaged in wars against the Persians
armies are very expensive to maintain
To make ends meet, ShahJahan increased taxes, many
people suffered because of his extravagance
Aurangzeb (son of Jahan)
Killed his older brother and imprisoned Jahan, took power
 Imposed strict Islamic law
 Banned celebrations
 Ended government spending on buildings and monuments
 Persecuted all other faiths
Heavily taxed Hindus and destroyed their temples, oppressed Shi’ah and
Sufi Muslims
His strict rule eventually lead to an uprising and chaos in the
Mughal Empire
Used elephants to crush protestors
 Revolts and economic problems weakened empire
 Wondered on his deathbed if his actions pleased God