Ch 21 Muslim Gunpowder Empires

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Transcript Ch 21 Muslim Gunpowder Empires

Ch 21 Muslim Gunpowder
Do Now: After reading the excerpt from A History of the World in
6 Glasses, answer the following questions:
How does the production and distribution of
coffee change during this time period (14501750)?
To what extent does the shift in the production
of coffee from Arabs to Europeans reflect the
broader shift in world power occurring during
the Early Modern Period?
• 15th Century- first drunk in Yemen
• 16th Century- spread throughout Arab/ Muslim world
– Some religious leaders outlawed it due to its stimulating effect
– Caught on and was widely consumed along with tobacco
• 17th Century- spread to major cities/centers of trade
throughout Europe by Arabs who held a monopoly on
– Coffeehouses sprung up
– Enlightenment ideas spread
– Tobacco also consumed
• 18th Century- Europeans gain control of coffee production.
First Dutch then French begin to produce it in their tropical
colonies and sell it throughout Europe, Americas, and middle
East. Eventually Brazil became dominant coffee producer
leaving Arabia behind… (History of the World in 6 Glasses)
“Gunpowder Empires”
• Decisive advantage during this period was the
use of cannons and artillery
• Chinese limited use of gunpowder during this
period because the scholar-gentry feared it
would give too much power to the military
• Japan practically eliminated the use of
firearms to preserve the feudal order
• Europe, the Ottomans, Safavid, and Mughal
used firepower to dominate
The Ottoman Empire (1300s-1923)
• Turkic nomads from C. Asia
• Warrior aristocracy
• Sultan, grand vizier, bureaucracy
• Hereditary with confusing rules for
• Janissaries: slave troops of Christian
• Mehmed II- defeated Byzantine
• Height of empire 16th century under
Suleiman the magnificent/the
• Warfare and expansion
– Defeated Safavid at Battle of
Chaldrian 1514
– Sizeable army (+200,00 cavalry) and
navy of (+90 warships)
• Eastern
• Battle of Lepanto,
• Battle of Chaldrian,
• Lost position of
• Sunni Muslims
• Significant minority of Jews and
• Polygamy
• Janissaries/devshirme=practice of
recruiting Christian children
• Fell behind in science and technology
• Turkish language replaced Arabic
• “people of the book”
• Hagia Sophia converted into Mosque
10/29 Do Now
Based on the Reading “The Decline of the Ottomans”,
answer the following questions:
1. What is the author’s point of view (Think SOAPSTONE)?
2. The author states that “it is good government not armies
that conserve an empire” to what extent do you agree or
disagree with this statement? Explain.
3. The author predicts that the Ottoman Empire will
decline rapidly. Based on your knowledge, was he correct?
Why or why not?
Safavid Empire 1501-1722
•Low status for women:
confined to home and
•Increased role of religious
scholars (MULLAHS)
• Started by Sail-al-Din
• Warrior aristocracy
• +40,000 cavalry; no navy
• Cannons not widely used
• Shah Abbas I-height (built
roads, mosques,
increased trade)
• Used captured Russian
boys as slaves in military
• Shah of Shahs (King of
• Lost Battle of Chaldrian
• Did not spread much beyond
• Traded silk, textiles, carpets
• Created large building
•Islamic fundamentalism
•Shiia majority
•Religious schools
•Small Sufi, Jew, and
Christian populations
•Forced conversion of
tolerant in some cases
•Persian language
dominated over Turkish
•Isfahan mosque built
Do Now 10/30
1. According to the Hindu clerk, why is everyone in
the kingdom “restless” including Akbar?
2. What evidence from the text supports the claim
that Akbar is tolerant of diverse religious
3. Why was Akbar so concerned about conquest
and weaponry?
4. Compare this attitude to the Ottoman
rulers…what similarities/differences do you
notice in military organization and conquest?
Mughal Empire (1523-1700s)
• Most ppl lived in poverty
• No widow remarriage
• Hindu traditions of sati,
female seclusion, and child
marriage , and burden of
the dowry, infanticide
• Women did have some
influence in the harem and
some inheritance rights
• Turkic nomads/Mongol
• Capital at Delhi
• Most ppl in empire were Hindu
• Babur-”the Tiger” united much of
Indian sub-continent
• Akbar “the Great”-developed the
warrior aristocracy
Religious toleration
Abolished jizya
Tried to eliminate sati and seclusion
for women
• Aurengzeb-reversed toleration and
led to decline
• Large army; no navy
• Cotton textile industry
• Trade
• Indian Ocean then increasing threat
of Europeans
• Cooperation with non-Muslims
under Akbar-abolished jizya
• Sikhs
• Patrons of arts
• Shah Jahan- Taj Mahal
• Blended Persian and Hindu
• Sharia Law
• European influence by
17th century/used force
• Cotton trade in Indian
• Decline b/c European
bullion led to inflation
and peasant rebellions
• Rising threat of Europe
What do all 3 have in common? What
is unique to each?
Reasons for decline of Muslim Empires
• Despite military advantages they failed to advance
transport and communication systems
• They had ineffective imperial bureaucracies
– Fragile and overstretched
• Conservative military and religious leaders did not want
to modernize
• Fell behind in trade and warfare techniques
------------• Western Europe had effective nation-states and
continued to advance their technology, communication,
and transportation systems resulting in western
European hegemony and a decline of Muslim empires
• Africa, the Americas, and SE Asia were not even players