The Mughal Dynasty

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Transcript The Mughal Dynasty

Ch. 13 – Asian Empires
- Qing, Mughal, Ottoman, and
IV. Asian Empires
A. Making China an Empire
1. Qing expansion in the West (1680–1760)
* foreign: Manchu's from North
* resented by ethnic Chinese
* used Confucianism, Chinese model for bureaucracy
2. Colonial?
* Expanded to incorporate Tibet, Xinjiang, Mongolia
* built for security purposes, NOT economic goals/
3. Economic downturn in Central Asia
* Silk roads become neglected due to rise in maritime
The Mughal Dynasty
The Mughal Dynasty
- One of the greatest leaders
- Building of military/administration systems
- Patronized arts
- Invented “universal” religion
Din-i-Ilahi: to unite Hindu and Muslim
- Social/Religious policies:
1. Reconciliation with Hindu princes
2. Encouraged intermarriage
3. Abolished jizya (head tax)
4. Allowed building of Hindu temples
5. Ordered respect for cows
The Mughal Dynasty
Akbar Social/Religious
reforms cont…
- improve calendar
- established living
quarters for homeless
- regulated consumption
of alcohol
- Encouraged widow
- Discouraged child
- Banned sati
Taj Mahal
Built by Shah Jahan
Tomb for wife Mumtaz Mahl
- died giving birth to 14th
- A symbol of his love
- First massive use of white
marble for entire building
The Taj
Struggle for Power
The Golden Age of the Ottomans
The Ottoman Bureaucracy
Heads of
Religious Millets
Social / Military
Local Administrators
& Military
Landowners /
Tax Collectors
Mehmet II: 1444-1445; 1451-1481
(“The Conqueror”)
-Captured Constantinople in 1453
-Extended the empire into Syria
and Egypt, across North Africa
-Developed into a naval power
The Ottoman Capital -- Constantinople
“Golden Horn” – 15c map
“Golden Horn” from space
“Golden Horn”
Sunset on the “Golden Horn”
The Fall of Constantinople: 1453
The End of the Byzantine Empire
Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia - interior
 Military played leading role
 Economy geared toward war and expansion
 Warrior aristocracy granted land and control
over peasants
 Janissaries
Conscripted through devshirme in the Balkans
Given expensive schooling and conversion to Islam
Became most powerful component of military =
political power
Sultans and Court Life
 Absolute monarchs
 Elaborate court rituals
 Administration carried out by viziers
 Built mansion, rest houses, schools,
hospitals, and gardens, religious
 Wrote in Persian and Arabic….Turkish by
17th century
Faith Mosque
Suleiman the Magnificent:
Suleiman’s Signature
Blue Mosque
Blue Mosque - interior
Illuminated Qur’an Page
Qur’an Page: The Angel Gabriel
Visits Muhammad
Collection of Taxes in Suleiman’s Court
Decline of Empire
- “Sick man of Europe”
- Dynasty lasted for more than 600 years
- Could not expand any more
- Corruption among officials in
administration = not effective any longer
- Issues over successors
- Kept like hostages
- Produced less prepared/weak monarchs
Decline of Empire
- 17th century: losses multiplied rapidly
- End of dominance at sea
- Battle at Lepanto 1571 (Spain/Venetian)
- Lost control of eastern Mediterranean
- Falling behind:
- Little of what happened in Europe mattered
- Intense conservationism of culture/way of
- Proved to be fatal
Battle of Lepanto (1571)
Safavid Empire
Empire of the Persians
Modern day Iran
 Population = 68+ million people
 51% Persian
 89% Shi’a Muslim
language =
Map of Safavid Empire
Shah Ismail
the Safavid Dynasty in 1501 .
 He declared Shi’a
Islam the new
religion (over Sunni
 He invited all shi’a
to move to Iran
where they would
be protected.
Chaldiran: The Sunni Sultan of
the Ottoman Empire (Selim)
attacked the Safavid kingdom to
stop the spread of Shiaism into
Ottoman dominions in 1514.
Sultan Selim I also took Ismā'il's
favorite wife hostage,
demanding huge concessions
for her release. Ismā'il refused
to cede to the Ottoman
demands, and is said to have
died of a broken heart in 1524
at the early age of thirty-six,
never having seen his beloved
spouse again.
Chaldiran’s Importance
Importance of muskets and field cannons
Defeat of Safavids by Ottomans
End of westward expansion
End of rapid spread of Shi’a Islam;
stayed mostly in Persia
Abbas the Great
- Educated and converted
captured Russian youth to
form military
- Granted provincial
governorships/high offices
at court
- Called on European
assistance on wars with
- Wanted to establish empire
as a major center of
international trade and
Islamic culture
State and Religion
Wrote in Turkish, gave way to Persian
Elaborate court rituals
Huge palace complexes
Shifts in religious impulses
- Shi’a faith modified
- Faith became major pillar of dynasty
- Most of Iranian population was converted
(Sunni Muslims, Christians, Jews,
Zoroastrians, Sufi)
Affluence and Artistic
- Encouraged trade outside of culture
- Network of roads, rest houses built to protect
- Devoted special attention to capital:
Great square
Mosques, Mosques, Mosques
Public baths
Mahan Mosque, 1300’s
Chehel-sotoon palace, Isfahan.
Iran. 1647
Masjed-e Sheikh Lotfallah,
Isfahan, Iran. 1615
The Shah Mosque,
Shah Abbas
 Defeated Ottoman
Turks 1603
 Took Baghdad
 Respected diplomat,
Cruel warrior, tolerant
to Christians…
Safavid Decline
- Abbas I grandson placed on throne
- Abbas II (r. 1642-1666)
- Could not stop the fall of the empire
- March 1722
- Afghani tribes laid siege to Isfahan
- October Isfahan fell and ended Safavid