The Muslim Empires - Eastern Upper Peninsula ISD

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Transcript The Muslim Empires - Eastern Upper Peninsula ISD

The Muslim Empires
•The Ottoman Empire
•Safavid Dynasty
The Turks
• Anatolian Peninsula given by Seljuk Turks
• Expanded westward
– Bosporus and Dardanelles
• Expanded into the Balkans
– An elite guard called Janissaries
• Christians converted to Islam
• Knowledge of firearms.
Ottoman Empire
• Mehmet II
– Laid seige to Constantinople, 1453
• Renamed Istanbul
• Sultan Selim I (Selim the Grim)
– Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Arabia
• Holy cities there.
• Caliph= defender of the faith and successor to
• Muslims
• Preferred to administer through local
• Pashas= govt appt’d officials
• Centralized government
• Killing off all contenders:
– Killed brothers & close friends.
• Advanced into the Balkans, but stopped by
• Suleyman I, 1520 - 1566
– Went up the Danube and took Belgrade.
• Conquered most of Hungary and moved
into Austria, but were defeated at Vienna
in 1529.
– 1683 tried again, but Europeans defeated
them. (never again!)
Nature of Ottoman Rule
• “Gunpowder Empire”
– Empire formed by outside conquerors who
unified the regions that they conquered
through their mastery of firearms.
• Sultan – supreme authority (hereditary)
– Struggles over succession
– Centralized Administration
– Harem (private domain)
• Wives, queen mother
Rule, cont’d.
Imperial council
Grand vizier
Sultan sat behind a screen
Empire divided into provinces
Religion & Ottomans
• Sunni Muslims
• Ulema= advisors; legal system; schools
• Generally tolerant of non-Muslims
– Non members paid a tax
– Most in Euro areas remained Christian
Ottoman Society
• Divided society was divided into five categories:
Men of sword – soldiers
Men of pen – scientists, lawyers, judges, poets
Men of negotiation – merchants, tax collectors, artisans
Men of husbandry- farmers and herders
Millets – religious communities (Greek Christians, Armenian
Christians, Jews)
• All land belonged to the Sultan
• Women: almost equal to men.
Allowed to own and inherent property
Could not be forced to marry
In some cases could get divorced.
Some worked in government
Problems in the Empire
Executed two sons suspected of treason.
Began to lose territory.
Internal disintegration.
Sultans became less involved in govt.
Training of officials declined.
Central bureaucracy lost touch w/ rural areas.
Corruption, wars debt,
Cultural changes countered – executions….
Safavid Empire
The Rule of the Safavids
• Ardent Shittes, or Shia
• Founded by Shah Ismail
– Called himself Shah, or king.
– Sent preachers out to convert people in
Ottoman Empire.
– Ordered massacre of Sunni Muslims in
Baghdad in 1508.
– Capital moved from Tabriz to Isfahan.
Shah Abbas
• Ruled from 1588 – 1629
Used a similar system to janissaries in
Ottoman Empire.
He centralized government power unto
He used force and diplomacy against the
Ottomans; he allied himself with the enemies
of the Ottomans.
The Fall of the Safavid Empire
• Dynasty lost vigor after Shah Abbas
– Successors didn’t have the talent/political skills.
– Intellectual freedom
– Religious orthodoxy increased.
• Affected women
• The Safavid declined because of the growing
power of the Shia clerics.
– They challenged the authority of the shah.
– They persecuted the non-Shias.
• Persia sank into a long period of social anarchy
Political and Social Structure
• Turkish + Persian
• Political System organized like a pyramid.
– Shah
– Bureaucracy and landed classes.
– Common people
The Shah
• Shah Ismail was believed to be a direct
successor of Muhammad.
• Shia Islam was the state religion.
• Available to subjects.
– Faces engraved in cups.
• Shahs controlled the power of the aristocracy.
– Government controlled the land.
– Government positions based on merit (not birth)
Economy and Trade
• Large Urban Middle Class involved.
• Most goods traveled by horse or camel
– Roads were poor, but government provided
resting places.
Safavid Culture
• Science, medicine, mathematics was
equal to that of other societies in the
• Beautiful Architecture.
• Metalwork, elaborate tiles, glass
– Isfahan, modern-day Iran.
• Silk
• Carpet weaving.