world history Chapter 9 section 3

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Transcript world history Chapter 9 section 3

10.4.2. Discuss the locations of the colonial rule of such nations as England, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Russia, Spain, Portugal, and the United States.

10.5.5 Discuss human rights violations and genocide, including the Ottoman government’s actions against Armenian citizens

 How did European nations extend their power into Muslim regions of the world?

  By the 1700s, all of the Muslim empires in decline.

 Ottomans in Middle East  Safavids in Iran  Mughals in India Corruption were wide-spread.

 In northern Africa, Usman dan Fodio led the struggle to reform Muslim practices  In the Sudan, Muhammad Ahmad declared himself the Mahdi, a religious savior  In Arabia, the Wahhabi wanted to recapture purity and simplicity of Islam’s original teachings

  Ottoman Empire  Economic problems  corruption Ethnic revolts.

  As the Ottoman Empire crumbled, Russia seized the Dardanelles in order to gain access to the Mediterranean Sea.

Britain tried to stop Russia

 1. As the Ottoman empire crumbled, Russia plotted to seize the Bosporus and Dardanelles in order to  a. build a Berlin-to-Baghdad railway.

 b. gain access to the Mediterranean Sea.

 c. build a canal through Egypt.

 d. gain control of the Red Sea.

 b. gain access to the Mediterranean Sea.

   1. Young men were sent to the West to study, they Western political ideas about democracy and equality.

2. The reforms brought improved medical care and revitalized farming 3. Several of the sultans, or rulers, of the Ottoman Turkish Empire rejected the reforms because they threatened their power.

 1. In 1908, the Young Turks overthrew the sultan but were unable to achieve their reforms because of WWI in 1914.

  The Muslim Turks accused Christian Armenians of supporting the Russian plans against the Ottoman empire.

3. Over 25 years, between 600,000 and 1.5 million Armenians were killed

   A. Muhammad Ali Introduces Reforms  He is sometimes called the “father of modern Egypt” 2. He made economic and farming reforms 3. Ali built a well-trained, modern army.

    Ali successors were not as successful Loans were taken out by Ali successors to build the Suez Canal.

They were unable to pay back the loans and Britain eventually gained control of the canal.

Egypt Became a British Protectorate

 Persia (Iran) faced several challenges in the 1800s.

 It was an absolute monarch  Russian and Britain took over their oil fields  Persian nationalists were outraged and wanted them to leave

The End