CHAPTER 22 Imperialism and Colonialism, 1870–1914

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Transcript CHAPTER 22 Imperialism and Colonialism, 1870–1914

Imperialism and Colonialism,
• Britain, France, Egypt, and the Suez
• Technology, money, and politics
• Western superiority
• Definitions
• The process of extending one state’s control
over another
• Formal imperialism
• Colonialism or direct control
• Colonizing countries annexed territories outright
• Established new governments
• Informal imperialism
• Allowed weaker state to maintain its
independence while reducing its sovereignty
• Carved out zones of European sovereignty and
• Imperialist endeavors
• Europeans took up 90 percent of Africa
• Small group of European states colonized
one-quarter of the world’s lands (1870–
• Eighteenth-century losses
• The British in the North American colonies
• French Atlantic trade
• Spanish and Portuguese in South America
• Nineteenth-century imperialism
• Appeared against the backdrop of
industrialization, liberal revolutions, and the
rise of nation-states
• The need for raw materials
• Bringing progress to the world
• Imperialists sought to distance themselves
from earlier histories of conquest
• Nineteenth-century imperialism
• Colonial resistance and rebellion forced
Europeans to develop new strategies of rule
• The British granted self-government to Canada,
Australia, and New Zealand
• Nineteenth-century empires established
carefully codified racial hierarchies
• Guided more by “settlement and discipline”
than independent entrepreneurial activity
• The creation of new kinds of interaction
between Europeans and indigenous
• The new imperialism and its causes
• Economic arguments
• London as the banker of the world
• Demand for raw materials made colonization a
necessary investment
• Strategic and nationalist motives
• International rivalries fueled the belief that national
interests were at stake
• The French supported imperialism as a means of
restoring national honor
• The link between imperialism and nation building
• The new imperialism and its causes
• The cultural dimension
• David Livingston (1813–1873) and putting an
end to the African slave trade
• Rudyard Kipling (1865–1936) and the “white
man’s burden”
• Civilizing the barbaric and heathen quarters
• Imperial policy
• Less a matter of long-range planning
• More a matter of quick responses to
improvised situations
Imperialism in South Asia
• India and the British Empire
• The “jewel of the British Crown”
• The British East India Company
• Had its own military divided into European and
Indian divisions
• Held the right to collect taxes on land from Indian
• Held legal monopolies over trade in all goods
(the most lucrative was opium)
• Constituted a military and repressive
Imperialism in South Asia
• The Sepoy Rebellion (1857–1858)
• Uprising began near Delhi
• Social, economic, and political grievances
• Indian peasants attacked law courts and
burned tax rolls
• A protest against debt and corruption
• Hindu and Muslim leaders denounced
Christian missionaries
• The British response
• Systematic campaign of repression
Imperialism in South Asia
• After the mutiny—reorganizing the Indian
New strategies of British rule
East India Company was abolished
British raj governed directly
Military reorganization
Reform of the civil service
Missionary activity subdued
Imperialism in South Asia
• India and Britain
• British indirect rule sought to create an
Indian elite to serve British interests
• Large social group of British-educated
Indian civil servants and businessmen
• Provided the leadership for an Indian nationalist
Imperialism in China
• Europe and China
Forced trade agreements
Set up treaty ports
Established outposts of missionary activity
British aimed to improve terms of the China
Imperialism in China
• The opium trade
• A direct link between Britain, British India,
and China
• Opium one of the few products Europeans
could sell in China
• A triangular trade
Imperialism in China
• The Opium Wars (1839–1842)
• Treaty of Nanking (1842)
• British trading privileges
• Hong Kong
• The second Opium War
• Britain granted further rights
• Other countries demand similar rights and
economic opportunities
• The Taiping Rebellion (1852–1864)
• Radical Christian rebels challenged the authority of
the emperor
• China’s agricultural heartland was devastated
Imperialism in China
• The Boxer Rebellion (1900)
• The Boxers
• Secret society of men trained in martial arts
• Antiforeign and antimissionary
• Attacked foreign engineers, destroyed railway
lines, and marched on Beijing
• The European response
• Great powers drew together
• Repression of the Boxers
• The rebellion highlighted the vulnerability of
European imperial power
Imperialism in China
• Russian imperialism
• Policy of annexation
• Southern colonization
• Georgia (1801)
• Bessarabia, Turkestan, and Armenia
• Brought Russia and Britain close to war,
especially over Afghanistan
• The “Great Game”
• Toward the east
• The Russo-Japanese War (1905)
• Russian naval forces were humiliated
The French Empire and the
Civilizing Mission
• The French in Algeria
• Algeria as a settler state
• Not all settlers were French
The French Empire and the
Civilizing Mission
• The French in Algeria
• After 1870—the “civilizing mission”
• Reinforcing the purpose of the French republic and French
• Jules Ferry (1832–1893) argued for expansion into
• French acquisitions
• Tunisia (1881)
• Northern and central Vietnam (1883)
• Laos and Cambodia (1893)
• Federation of French West Africa (1895)
• Rationalizing the economic exploitation of the area
• “Enhancing the value” of the region
• Public programs served French interests only
The Scramble for Africa and the
• The Congo Free State
• The 1870s
• A new drive into central Africa—the fertile valleys of the
Congo River
• European colonizers under the Belgian king, Leopold II
(1835–1909, r. 1865–1909)
• Herbert M. Stanley and his “scientific” journeys
• International Association for the Exploration and
Civilization of the Congo (1876)
• Signed treaties with local elites
• Opened the Congo to commercial exploitation (palm oil,
rubber, diamonds)
• The Congo Free State
• Actually run by Leopold’s private company
• Slave trade suppressed in favor of free labor
• The Congo becomes a Belgian colony (1908)
The Scramble for Africa and the
• The partition of Africa
• Colonial powers increase their holdings in
Africa (1880s)
• Germany
• Bismarck was a reluctant colonizer
• Seized strategic locations (Cameroon and
• France
• Aimed to move eastward across the continent
The Scramble for Africa and the
• The partition of Africa
• Britain
• Southern and eastern Africa
• Cecil Rhodes (1853–1902)
• Made a fortune from South African diamond mines
• Personal goal was to build an African empire founded
on diamonds
• Carved out territories in Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi,
and Botswana
• The “Cape-to-Cairo” railway
• Making Britain self-sufficient
Imperial Culture
• Images of empire
Images of empire were everywhere
Museums displayed the products of empire
Music halls and imperial songs
Imperial Culture
• Empire and identity
• The “civilizing mission” of the French
• Bringing progress to other lands
• Women and empire
Imperial Culture
• Theories of race
• Arthur de Gobineau (1816–1882)
• The Inequality of the Races (1853–1855)
• Race as the master key to understanding the
world’s problems
• The racial question overshadowed all others
• Slavery proved the racial inferiority of the slave
• Houston Stewart Chamberlain (1855–1927)
• Making racial theory more scientific
• Tied racial theories to Darwinism and Herbert
Imperial Culture
• Theories of race
• Francis Galton (1822–1911)
• Eugenics—the science of improving the racial
• Selective breeding
• The rhetoric of progress, the civilizing
mission, and race
• Provided a rationale for imperial conquest
Imperial Culture
• Critics
• Joseph Conrad argued that imperialism
signified deep problems
• The Pan-African Congress (1900)
• The problem of the twentieth century is the
problem of race
Imperial Culture
• Colonial culture
• Colonialism created new hybrid cultures
• Annexed areas as laboratories for creating
orderly and disciplined societies
• Worry over preserving national traditions
and identity
• Should education be Westernized?
• Fraternization with indigenous peoples might
undermine European power
• Sexual relations
• Compromises about “acceptability”
Crisis of Empire at the Turn of the
Twentieth Century
• Europe in 1900
• Crisis
• Sharp tensions between Western nations
• The expansion of European economic and
military commitments to territories overseas
• Fashoda (1898)
• Britain and France faced one another for
dominance of Africa
Crisis of Empire at the Turn of the
Twentieth Century
• South Africa: The Boer War
• Afrikaners (Boers)—Dutch and Swiss
settlers who had arrived in the early
nineteenth century
• Afrikaners set up two free states—Transvaal
and the Orange Free State
• Afrikaners and British went to war (1899)
• British army was completely unprepared for
Crisis of Empire at the Turn of the
Twentieth Century
• South Africa: The Boer War
• British government refused to compromise
• The British eventually seized Pretoria
• A guerrilla war dragged on for three years
• British used concentration camps where
Afrikaner citizens were rounded up
• The Union of South Africa—British and
Boers shared power
Crisis of Empire at the Turn of the
Twentieth Century
• U.S. imperialism
• Spanish-American War (1898)
• Antecedents
• War with Mexico in the 1840s
• The conquest of new territories
• Texas and California
• Conflict with Spain
• Spanish imperial authority faced problems in the Caribbean
and Pacific colonies
• American press sided with the rebels
• The United States stepped in to protect its economic
• Spanish defeat undermined the Spanish monarchy
Crisis of Empire at the Turn of the
Twentieth Century
• U.S. imperialism
• The annexation of Puerto Rico and
protectorate over Cuba
• Panama
• U.S.-backed rebellion in 1903
• Recognized Panama as a republic
• The Panama Canal (1914)
• Intervention in Hawaii and Santo Domingo
• Renewed missionary activity
• Rapid extension of formal European
• The West as a self-consciously imperial
This concludes the Lecture PowerPoint for Chapter 22.