American History Chapter 6: The Expansion of American Industry

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Transcript American History Chapter 6: The Expansion of American Industry

American History Chapter 6:
The Expansion of American
I. A Technological Revolution
Objectives of Lesson:
Key Concepts
• Learn how daily lives changed in the decades
following the Civil War.
• Find out how advances in electric power and
communication affected people and businesses
in this era.
• Discover the effects the development of
railroads had on industrial growth.
• Think about the impact of the Bessemer
process on American culture.
Attention Getter
• Typewriter
• Telephone
• What is the most important invention? Why?
Recall Prior Knowledge
• How many times do you use the telephone per
• If you lived before the telephone was invented –
how would you communicate?
• How would your life be different without
• Lets find out about early forms of
A) Setting the Scene
• Samuel Morse in 1844 sends the first successful
telegram from Washington DC to Baltimore.
• US on the verge of a second industrial
• New inventions will change our lives
• Picture: early form of telegraph
B) Changes in Daily Life
No internal electricity in house – went to bed at dark and up at
first light – unless had money for candles and lamps
• Ice cost too much – saved it in ice houses
• Took over a month for mail to go coast to coast
• Patent and Trademark Office issued patents on new inventions
1) patents: licenses that give an inventor the exclusive right
to make, use or sell an invention
2) Productivity: amount of goods and services created in a
given period of time’
• Productivity in US growing fast. By 1900, US standard of
living was one of the highest in the world.
C) New Forms of Energy
• In 1858, Edwin L Drake strikes oil in Titusville, Pennsylvania.
• Drilling for oil cheaper then digging
• Oil companies made kerosene, gasoline was the byproduct and
was thrown away until the automobile invented.
• Thomas A. Edison – invented the light bulb in 1880 – by 1882
had set up the first electric power plant
• Lewis Latimer improved light bulbs – son of a slave
• George Westinghouse – used alternating current – traveled
farther with the help of transformers to boost power
• Edison created General Electric – Westinghouse created
Westinghouse Electric
• Electric sewing machine in 1889 led to ready
made clothing growth
• With electricity the Refrigerator was possible
D) Advances in Communications
• Samuel F.B. Morse perfected the telegraph –
• Western Union formed
• Alexander Graham Bell invented the “talking
telegraph” in 1876 at the age of 29.
• Set up the American Telephone and Telegraph
• 1879 first telephone in White House – by 1900
1.5 million telephones
E) Railroads Create a National
Transcontinental railroad: railway extending from coast
to coast
Government paid for it – not as efficient if private industry
paid for it
Construction began on the Pacific Coast and at the Mississippi
– meet in the middle
Irish immigrants worked for the Union Pacific and Chinese
immigrants worked on the Central Pacific
Met at Promontory Summit Utah in 1869 (Picture)
Time Zones created to help scheduling
Railroads were good because they were faster, cheaper, created
national markets, model for big business, stimulated other
F) The Bessemer Process
4) Bessemer Process: easier and cheaper way
to make steel
5) Mass production: production in great
• Steal is lighter and stronger than iron
• Because of the Bessemer Process, companies
could now mass produce steal
• Brooklyn Bridge built – Chicago Reliance
Building built
• Why did people’s daily lives change in the
decades following the Civil War?
• How did advances in electric power and
communication affect life for people and
• What effects did the development of railroads
have on industrial growth?
• What was the impact of the Bessemer process
on American culture?
Process Information
• What are some of the ways in which new
technology revolutionized American life in the
years following the Civil War?
Finished Section 6.1
• Once you finish, go back to the web-page and
download and print quiz 6.1. After completing
the quiz, send an e-mail to me with your
answers. In the subject line put (your first and
last name – quiz 6.1)
• When you finish with that – check with the
syllabus to find out when section 6.2 needs to be
• Good Luck!