Crew Resource Management
Minnesota Wing Aircrew Training:
Crew Resource Management
Understand attitudes and skills that allow each
crewmember to participate as part of the team
Properly trained aircrew members can collectively
perform complex tasks better and make more
accurate decisions than the single best performer
on the team.
An untrained team's overall performance can be
significantly worse than the performance of its
weakest single member.
Crew Management Goals
Maximize human performance
Understand group dynamics
Assess, mitigate, and manage risk
Manage workload to avoid task saturation or
Improve communication inside and outside
Maintain situational awareness
Scanning is physically demanding work
Consider using search pattern turns as opportunities to
Duty day rules apply to scanners and observers as
well as pilots (CAPR 60-1)
14 hour duty day max
Duty Day is defined as beginning when reporting to work or
the CAP activity, whichever occurs first. It ends at engine
8 scheduled flight hours within a duty day max
Under no circumstances will flight time exceed 10 hours
10 hours rest between duty days minimum
Other Human Performance factors
Heat / Cold
Light / Contrast
Empty Field Myopia
Types of authority / Leadership styles
Get There It-us
The Error Chain
of event links that, when
considered together, cause a mishap.
Should any one of the links be
“broken,” then the mishap will not
It is up to each crewmember to
recognize a link and break the error
Little things can make a difference
Help the pilot manage charts, checklists, etc.
Manage the CAP radio
Consider when to apply sterile flight deck
use idle time to prepare for next busy activity
Entire crew should participate in briefings and
debriefings if possible
Otherwise the pilot should thoroughly brief the team
Pilot should plan sorties with the participation
of the aircrew
Don’t be afraid to volunteer information in the
air and on the ground
Don’t be afraid to ask relevant questions
Keeping a mental picture of what is happening
and about to happen
Don’t’ fixate, scan the big picture
Project ahead and consider contingencies
Rotate attention between the crew, the plane
(current situation), and the path ahead
Speak up when you see SA breaking down
Too much information at one time
Too many tasks to accomplish in a given time
Usually occurs when an individual is
confronted with a new or unexpected situation.
Regaining Situational Awareness
Reduce workload: Suspend the mission.
Get away from the ground and other
obstacles (e.g., climb to a safe altitude).
– Establish a stable flight profile where you
can safely analyze the situation.
Remember: “Aviate, Navigate,
How do we get it back?
Trust your gut feelings
“Time Out,” “Abort,” or “This is Stupid.”
– Pilot establishes aircraft in a safe and stable
configuration, and then discuss the problem
– Limit talk to the minimum necessary for safety.
– Taxi, takeoff, departure, low-level flying,
Assignment of Duties
Flight-related -- aircraft commander
Mission-related -- mission commander
Understand and execute your
Pay close attention to all briefings.
Understand the “big picture.”
Watch for task overload in yourself and other
67% of air transport accidents occur during
17% of the flight time - taxi, takeoff, departure,
approach and landing. Keep casual
conversation and distractions to a minimum
during these phases of flight.
Begin critical communications with instructions,
Successful missions hinge on each and
Learn how to use the procedures and
tools available to you, and use them
Never stop learning
Don’t be afraid to ask questions
Never criticize someone for asking
Anyone can call “Time Out,” “Abort,” or
“This is Stupid”
Practice, practice, practice!