Hartono, S.S., M.Pd.
College of Languages
Sultan Agung Islamic University (Colasula)
Articulatory: The airflow may be stopped,
impeded, or diverted (trough the nasal
tract). The vocal folds may or may not vibrate
Acoustically: consonants are less sonorous
than vowels, that is, vowels are perceived as
louder and longer sounds.
Functionally: generally consonants do not
function as the nucleus of a syllable.
Consonants are categorized into three
dimensions of their productions:
- Place of articulation
- Manner of articulation
- State of the vocal cords (voiced or voiceless
Place of articulation refers to which speech
organs are used to articulate a consonant.
Consonant productions usually involves two
articulators. In many cases, one is the active
articulator (which moves), and the other is the
In the case of bilabial consonants, both
articulators are active.
involving 2 lips
lower lip and upper teeth
/ Interdental : involving
the tip of the tongue and teeth.
/ lingua alveolar:
involving the tip of the tongue
and alveolar ridge
/ Alveopalatal / lingua
palatal: involving the blade of the
tongue and the alveopalatal area
(between the alveolar ridge and
the hard palate)
Velar: involving the back of the
tongue and the velum
Pharyngeal / Glottal: involving the
vocal folds as primary articulation.
Stop / Plosive
A plosive is a consonant articulation with the
a) one articulator is moved against another,
or two articulators are moved against
each other, so as to form a stricture that
allows no air to escape from the vocal
b) The air is then released.
c) Some plosives are voiced, the others are
/ p/ : pin, pen, pear, cup, pup, Poppy
/b/ : bin, Ben, bear, cab, pub, Bobby
Alveolar / Lingua-alveolar :
/ t / : too, sent, cart, write, train, trunk
/ d /: do, send, card, ride, drain, drunk
Velar / lingua-velar:
/k / : coat, curl, class, back, crowing
/g / : goat, girl, glass, bag, growing
Fricatives are consonants with the
characteristic that air escapes through a
narrow passage and makes a hissing sound.
Fricatives are continuant consonants which
means that you can continue making them
without interruption as long as you have
enough air in your lungs.
The importance of the narrow passage:
a) Make a long, hissing s sound and gradually
lower your tongue so that it is no longer
close to the roof of the mouth. The hissing
sound will stop.
b) Make a long f sound, then pull your lower
lip away from the upper one. The sound will
/ f/ : safe, fine, fail, few, fast, ferry
/ v/ : save, vine, veil, view, vast, very
/ θ/ : mouth, thumb, thick, think, path
/ ð/ : than, they, there, those, either
/s / : Sue, C, sip, bus, piece, price
/ z/ : zoo, Z, zip, buzz, peas, prize
/ ʃ /: she, shoe, ship, ash, show, push
/ ʒ/ : casual, massage, occasionally,
collision, measure, casualty
/ tʃ / : cheap, choke, riches, cherries, larch,
/ dʒ/ : jeep, joke, ridges, Jerry’s, large, age
/ m /: mile, mine, mummy, comb, name
/ n/ : Nile, nine, money, cone, mane
win, thin, ban, ran, run, Ron
/ ŋ/ : wing, thing, bang, rang, rung, wrong
/ l/ : long, light, load, jelly, fly, glass
/ r/ : wrong, right, road, Jerry, fry, grass
/ w/: we, west, wet, wine, whale
/j /: yolk, use, yam, yes, years