100 Years War

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Transcript 100 Years War

The Renaissance in the North

PP 56-59

Johan Gutenberg

• • • • • Experimented with moveable type Invented the printing press 1455 – Made individual letters easily moveable on a print – Variety of text could be made by re-arranging Able to mass produce books Made it possible to spread propaganda Stimulated literacy of lay people

Printing Press

Northern Renaissance

• • • Began in Netherlands Students from Germany France England and Low countries flocked to Italy Spread through trade, travel

Famous Northern Artist

• • • Jan Van Eyck – Portrayed towns people and religious themes Peter Bruegel – Used vibrant colors to portray peasant life Peter Paul Reubens – Paintings portrayed biblical, classical and mythological themes

Jan Van Eyck

Peter Bruegel

Peter Paul Reubens

“Leonardo of the North”

• • • • Albrecht Durer German Traveled to Italy to learn about humanities Applied Techniques to engraving – This was done by carving patterns on a metal plate with acid and using it to create prints

Albrecht Durer

Northern Humanist Writers

• Desiderius Erasmus – Dutch Priest – Had a deep understanding of Latin and studied the Latin Classics – Wrote about the formation of Character in leadership – Used his knowledge to produce a Greek New testament – Called for a translation of the bible to vernacular

Northern Humanist Writers

• Sir Thomas More – English Humanist trained as a lawyer – Wrote Utopia means “Nowhere” about ideal society where men and women are equal live in peace and harmony – Book about an Idealistic Community on an Island – All people work and contribute and are educated throughout life

Northern Humanist Writers

• Francois Rabilias – French Humanist – Wrote comical Gargantua and Pantagruel – Discussed comical travels through Europe, but it actually offered opinions about religion and spoofed contemporary French society – Believed education was the key to a moral and healthy life

Northern Humanist Writers

• William Shakespeare – English poet and play-write – Between 1590 and 1613 wrote 37 plays – Performed at the Globe Theater – Burnt down during the play Henry the VII from a cannon shot on stage

Popular Shakespeare Plays

• • • •

Romeo and Juliet Hamlet Julius Caesar Richard the III

“Romeo, Romeo where fore art thou Romeo?”

“To be or not to be”

“Et tu, brute”

Daughter of Time

Things to know High Middle Ages

• • • • Prelude to disaster Black Death The Hundred Years War 1337-1453 The Great Schism

Prelude to disaster

• • • • • • • Severe weather conditions from “Little Ice Age” Prices rose rapidly Storms ruined crops Too expensive to transport food long distance Decreased calorie intake lead to poor health Lower productivity Typhoid out break

The Black Death

• • • Improvements of boat technologies allowed for year round shipping Ships at sea constantly so rats on the ships were on the move Bubonic plague – October 1347 Genoese Ships brought the Plague to Messina – January 1348 Genoa, Sicily, Venice, then to Rome and Florence – Late Spring 1348 Germany – June 1348 two ships brought it to England

Black Death

How it Spread

• • • • • Bacteria carried in fleas Fleas lived on rats who traveled on ships among cargo (grains) Rats leave the ship go into town Called black death because of large black welts on the victims Bubonic (blood borne) became pneumonic (airborne)

100 Years War 1337-1453

• • • • Actually lasted 116 years Between England and France Over land rights to northern France Ruined the economies and governments

What caused the War

• • • • King of France, Philip, dies leaving no heir Since the mother (Isabella) of the King of England (Edward III) was king of France’s sister Edward III claimed he had a birthright to the throne of France Nobles disputed this no woman or her son could claim the throne Crown passed to Philip VI nephew of the French king igniting intermittent war from 1337-1453

What Happened

• • • • Governments of both countries manipulated public opinion England waged war to try to get Edward III the crown of France Kings of both countries issued letters to clergy asking them to discuss the plight in service Presented opportunities for poor knights to gain wages in battle- mercenaries

Course of War

• • • • • Fought mostly in Northern France Random sieges and cavalry raids French supported Scottish incursions against England England was very successful early on – – Long bow vs. cross bow English used cannons first time used in western warfare Joan of Arc – Was more of a missionary not a warrior – – Believed if the French soldiers “cleaned up their act” God would be on their side Siege of Orleans English withdrew due to sickness – – French Claim victory and crown Charles VII king Captured by English – – Put to death condemned as a heretic Canonized by Catholic church

English Long Bow

French Crossbow

100 Years War

Joan of Arc

Results of the War

• • • • Thousands killed adding to Black Death England – Damage to southern England Shipping ports – Cost of war over 5 million pounds – – Break down in order with knights away Taxes raised to pay for the war – Creation of English Parliament, a representative assembly France – Spent almost as much as England – – Did not create a national assembly had regional assemblies Monarchs lacked the power to assemble Nationalism begins to emerge

Decline of the Church’s Prestige

In times of crisis and disaster, people of all faith’s have sought the consolation of religion. In the fourteenth century however, the official Christian church offered little solace. In fact the leaders of the church added to the people’s sorrow.

The Babylonian Captivity

• • • • • • • Church began to be more political Pope Clement V ill with cancer / Philip the Fair 1309-1379 Pope lived in Avignon, France giving control of the church and its politics to the French Damaged the papal prestige During this time Popes concentrated more on politics than spirituality Atmosphere more of a life of luxury not penance The leadership was isolated from its historical roots in Rome

The Great Schism

• • • • 1377 Pope Gregory XI brought the Papal court back to Rome then died Roman’s/Italian’s demanded the next Pope be Italian so the papal court stays in Rome Conclave elected Archbishop of Bari, Bartolommeo Prignano Took the name Urban VI

The Great Schism cont.

• • • • • • Pope Urban VI had intentions of reform Denounced individual cardinals by name for lavish lifestyle loosing their favor and threatened to excommunicate The cardinals left Rome met at Anagni Voted the Urban VI was voted excommunicated by the cardinals Met again in Fondi voted Cardinal Robert of Geneva pope. He was the cousin of Charles V of France Cardinal Robert became Clement VII and set up back in Avingnon

The Great Schism Two Popes now existed This divided Europe

Urban VI Rightful Pope

• • • • Lived in Rome Believed in reform Felt Church was separate from Government Recognized by Italy and England * eventually denounced by Italy • • • •

Clement VII Anti-pope

Lived in Avignon Wanted to continue the way things were Was more involved in politics Recognized by France This all weakened the religious faith of many Christians and gave rise to instability and excess

Precursor to the Reformation

• • John Wyclif 1330-1384 – Claimed papal power was not derived from the bible – Scripture alone should be the belief and practice – Ideas condemned by Church authorities Jan Hus 1389-1415 – Insisted religion be orthodox – Disputed papal authority (both of them) and denounced the practices of the church


• • • • Two colleges of cardinals meet and denounced the two current Popes in response to calls for reform and elect a new Pope The two current Popes refuse to resign so now there are three Popes German Emperor Sigismund pressures council to meet and resolve the problems Council meets in 1414 in Constance

End of the Great Schism

• • Council meets in Constance 1414-1418 Three objectives – Depose both Popes and Anti Pope – Elect a new Pope – End heresy invited Jan Hus to the council and burned him at the stake Elected Roman Cardinal Colonna became Martin V but he did little to reform after dissolving the council