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The Stormy Sixties: 1960 1968

Chapter 38 AP Notes


• Describe the high expectations of Kennedy’s New Frontier and political obstacles… • Analyze the theory and practice of Kennedy’s doctrine of “flexible response” • Describe Johnson’s succession to the presidency in 1963…

1960 Election

• • • •

R.M. Nixon v. J.F. Kennedy Obstacles for Kennedy….


Religion Promises… Liberal Consensus…

The Debates…

Kennedy Strengths V. RMN Weaknesses

What were the results of the 1960 election?


• • • •

The Kennedy Cabinet “The Best and the Brightest” McGeorge Bundy – NSA Robert McNamara – Secretary of Defense Dean Rusk-

Sec. of State

RFK- Attorney General

Kennedy’s New Frontier..

• Higher minimum wage • Greater federal aid to education • Increased Social Security • Medical care for the elderly • Support for public housing • Anti-poverty measures – influenced by Michael Harrington’s The Other America


• Slight increase in minimum wage • Modest expansion of Social Security • Higher Education Act 1963 • Area Redevelopment Act for Appalachia • Manpower Retraining Act of 1963… • NASA….

• Commission on the Status of Women –

Equal Pay Act of 1963

Race to the Moon In April, 1961 the USSR put the first man in space, Yuri Gagarin

JKF increased funding to NASA, $33 billion by 1969

• •

Cape Canaveral and Houston Space Center were built

JFK pledged to go to the moon by the end of the 1960’s

Universities expanded science programs, new industries and technologies emerged

JFK and Civil Rights

• At first wanted to avoid the issue – too controversial • RFK was ordered to investigate racial injustices in the South • He sent federal troops to desegregate Old Miss (James Meredith) • He sent federal marshals during the Freedom Rides • Sent a Civil Rights bill to Congress in 1963

Kennedy on CR?

• Appointed approx. 40 African Americans to high federal positions • Thurgood Marshall apptd. to federal appellate court • Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity – fight discrimination in federal civil service and in corporations with government contracts • Invigorate CR division of Dept. of Justice

The Freedom Riders?

• Test the Court’s decision to end segregation on buses and public places • 1961 – interracial CORE group rode interstate buses • Attacked and beaten by white mobs in Birmingham and Anniston, AL • One bus was firebombed • In Montgomery riders were beaten with bats and pipes

How did the government respond to the violence?

• RFK sent 400 Federal Marshals for the rest of the ride • The ICC banned segregation in all interstate travel

Integrating Ole Miss

• Sept. 1962 – air force veteran James Meredith won his case to enroll • Gov. Ross Barnett refused to let him register • RFK sent federal marshals – Barnett encouraged resistance • Riots  2 killed, 169 marshals injured • JFK sent 5,000 troops  Meredith went to school

Meredith being escorted by Federal Marshals

Birmingham, Alabama

• MLK – challenged discriminatory hiring practices and segregated public facilities • King arrested – “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”….

• May 2 nd – 2,000 children marched… • Drew national attention – police used fire hoses, dogs, and beatings • Compromise agreement – forced desegregation

Kennedy’s response?

• • • • •

Confrontations of 1960s disturbed him Began to move more in favor of Civil Rights Proposed a bill calling for an end to segregation in public places, banned discrimination wherever federal funding involved – advanced desegregation of public schools Kennedy’s approval rating went up Southern senators blocked the legislation

June 11, 1963 – Kennedy addressed the nation – Civil Rights bill

March on Washington

• CR leaders planned the march to get support for Kennedy’s bill • August, 1963 – 250,000 people from all over the U.S.

• Called for jobs and freedom • MLK – “I Have a Dream” speech

March on Washington - 1963


• Over 300 bills sent to Congress – less than 50% passed • Congress rejected federal aid for : –

Medical care for the elderly, education, cities, and mass transportation

• Reasons? Close election – Kennedy doesn’t have a mandate and opposition from southern democrats and conservative republicans

JFK’s Domestic Legacy?

• Strengthened executive branch • White House staff appointed by the President made many key decisions…

Kennedy’s Foreign Policy?

• Shifted from aggressive containment to efforts at easing tensions • At first built up nuclear and conventional weapons • Increased defense budget • Created elite force – Special Forces – Green Berets to supplement CIA covert operations

Peace Corps

• • • •

Young volunteers Sent to third world nations for 2 years Provide technical support and educational assistance Epitomized Kennedy’s ideal of service by idealistic youth

Peace Corps

nations – 35,000 volunteers in 60

Alliance for Progress –

offered economic and technical assistance to Latin American countries ($20 billion in aid) – A Marshall Plan for Latin America

Kennedy and Vietnam…

• Pursued containment • Supported the Diem against southern Vietnamese insurgents – Vietcong • Sent Green Berets and military advisors • 1963 sent 16,000 support and combat troops to support Diem • Diem’s regime corrupt – failed to win support of the people

Buddhist monk burning himself to death in protest over Diem’s repressive regime.

Kennedy and Vietnam…

• South Vietnamese army continued to disintegrate • 1963 with knowledge of the CIA – a group of Vietnamese generals assassinated Diem and his top advisers • South Vietnam will be ruled by a series of generals for the duration of the war

Berlin Wall?

• • • • •

1961 – JFK met with Khrushchev in Vienna to discuss the future of Germany Khrushchev wanted a permanent division and to force U.S. out of W. Berlin 3 million East Germans had fled to W. Berlin since end of WWII Kennedy tried to stand up to him – asked Congress for increased defense funding Soviets built the wall

The Bay of Pigs…

• Jan. 1, 1959 – Fidel Castro seized power in Cuba • Many were sympathetic… • Eisenhower and CIA –

Suspicious of land reforms

Revoked U.S. aid

• Castro turned to the S.U.

• U.S. severed diplomatic relations

The Invasion?

• CIA trained and armed Cuban exiles for an invasion • Kennedy inherited the plan – but decided against air force cover • CIA thought there would be a popular uprising • It was a disaster and an embarrassment to Kennedy

Cuban Missile Crisis…

• Most serious confrontation of the Cold War • Castro fearing U.S. invasion asked for Soviet assistance • S.U. sent intermediate range nuclear missiles to Cuba • U.S. U-2 flights took pictures of missile silos – • U.S. saw this as a direct threat to American cities

October 22, 1962 – Kennedy addressed the nation… • Informed the nation of danger • Demanded removal of all missiles • Ordered a strict naval “quarantine” of Cuba

The Brink of War…

• • • • •

100,000 US troops readied in Florida to invade Cuba Oct. 26-27 Khrushchev ordered 25 Soviet ships away from Cuba – avoided confrontation Khrushchev offered to remove missiles if U.S. agreed not to invade Cuba Also wanted removal of American weapons in Turkey We complied – crisis over

Soviet ships on the way to Cuba…

Outcome of the Crisis…

• • •

Khrushchev’s prestige hurt – Kennedy’s bolstered Hot Line set up between the two countries Limited Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

Prohibited above ground, outer space, and underwater nuclear weapons tests

Underground testing – O.K.

The Assassination of JFK…

• Dallas, Texas – November 22, 1963 • Accused killer – Lee Harvey Oswald • Two days later – Oswald shot and killed on national T.V. by Jack Ruby • Chief Justice Earl Warren appointed to head a commission to investigate the killing – Warren Commission said Oswald was the lone gunman

The Kennedy’s Arrive in Dallas LBJ, Jackie Kennedy, and JFK

LBJ and The Great Society


• Describe LBJ’s succession to the Presidency, his landslide victory in 1964, and the Great Society • Discuss the course of the black movement of the 1960s • Indicate how Johnson led the U.s. deeper into the Vietnam War

What was LBJ’s path to power?

From Texas

1937 – New Deal Congressman

FDR helped him secure key committee assignments

1948 – Senator from Texas

1955 Senate majority leader

LBJ’s path to power…

• • •

Master politician – very persuasive Knew how to handle Congress to secure passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1957

Chosen by Kennedy family to be Vice President…..

Given the Oath of Office aboard Air Force One….

How did Johnson complete Kennedy’s agenda?

Kennedy was the inspiration to solve world and national problems

Johnson – got the job done

Tax cut bill

Civil rights bill

Tax Cut

• • • • • •

February 1964 tax reduction of over $10 billion passed into law Spurred economic growth….

People spent more More profit for business Increased tax revenues Lowered deficit from $6 billion to 4 billion

It worked!!!!

What was LBJ’s role on Civil Rights?

• After Kennedy shot – Johnson pledged to carry on his work • Used his political skill to see that Kennedy’s bill was passed • Passed in the House – filibustered in Senate • Johnson ended filibuster and Kennedy’s bill became the Civil Rights Act of 1964

Civil Rights Act of 1964

• • •

Prohibited discrimination because of race, religion, national origin, and gender Gave all citizens the right to enter libraries, parks, washrooms, restaurants, theaters and all public places Gave government more power to desegregate and created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

What was Mississippi Freedom Summer?

• • • •

Summer of 1964 – CORE and SNCC Voting drives in the deep South June – 3 civil rights workers disappeared murdered by KKK and police Project workers suffered 1,000 arrests, 80 beatings, 35 shootings, and 30 bombings

Mississippi Freedom Summer 1964

James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner – murdered Civil Rights workers

Car of murdered CR workers in Philadelphia, Mississippi

Successes of Mississippi Freedom Summer?

• Brought national attention to Mississippi racism • Forty freedom schools • 60,000 black voters joined the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party • MFDP sent delegates to Democratic National Convention challenging the all white delegates

“In this America, the land of the free and the home of the brave, where we are threatened daily because we want to live as decent human beings?”

The Selma Campaign

• • • • • •

In 1965 SNCC organized a voting campaign in Selma, Alabama 2,000 African-Americans had been arrested On March 7 th , 1965 , 600 protestors began the march from Selma to Montgomery, AL Police swung whips, clubs and used tear-gas On March 21, 3,000 members led by MLK with Federal Protection marched The numbers grew to 25,000 marchers

The Voting Rights Act of 1965

• • •

That summer LBJ signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965 The act eliminated literacy tests, allowed federal officials to register voters The 24 th Amendment to the Constitution eliminated poll taxes

Violence in northern cities?

• • • • •

Centuries of de facto segregation had produced social and economic inequalities Slums, high unemployment, poor schools all contributed to desperation Aggressive Police was a point of contention In July 1964, a race riot erupted in Harlem after a 15 year old black student was killed On Aug. 11 th , 1965 the worst riot erupted in Watts, Los Angeles

• • •

Watts- 34 deaths, $200 million in damages Detroit 1967 – 43 deaths, $40 million in property damages

In 1966 and 67 more than 100 riots and violent clashes took place Newark, San Francisco, Milwaukee, Phila., Cleveland, and Dayton


What caused race riots and the destruction?

• • •

Heightened expectations from the civil rights movement and LBJ’s promises in the Great Society that were not realized “White Racism”

poverty, police brutality The Kerner Commission recommended extensive public housing, integrated schools, 2 million new jobs, and a national system of income supplementation

Malcolm X and Black Consciousness • • • •

Malcolm Little joined The Nation of Islam when he was in prison and changed his name to Malcolm X Preached Elijah Muhammad’s views that whites were the cause of the problem and black should separate from society Preached black supremacy Received media attention which resulted in resentment from other Nation of Islam members

• • •

In March of 1964 - broke with the Nation and went on the pilgrimage to Mecca Malcolm X returned and preached an extremely moderate message, found a new tolerant Muslim organization and proposed working with Dr. MLK On Feb. 21, 1965, Malcolm X was assassinated by members of the Nation of Islam

What was Johnson’s agenda?

• • •

War on Poverty Create a Great Society Economic Opportunity Act - 1964

– – – –

Job Corps Youth Training Program VISTA (Volunteers in Service to America) Project Head Start Community Action Program – encouraged poor people to participate in public works programs

Job Corps – Johnson visits

Project Head Start

The Election of 1964

Republican nominated Barry Goldwater of Arizona

– –

Conservative Attacked Social Security and TVA

Suggested use of nuclear weapons in Vietnam and Cuba

Johnson’s 1964 Campaign Ad

Johnson’s victory…

• •

Most Americans in tune with LBJ

Agreed that government should help solve nation’s problems LBJ played on people’s fears

Goldwater favored more intervention in Vietnam

LBJ assured that he would not send more troops

Results of the election…

• • •

LBJ won by a landslide

61% of the popular vote

486 electoral votes Goldwater – 52 electoral votes Democrats increased majority of Congress

LBJ no longer needed help of Southern Democrats to pass legislation

“Landslide Lyndon”

Johnson’s Vision for America

The Great Society

End poverty and racial injustice

Higher standard of living and equal opportunity

By end of presidency – enacted 206 measures

“The Johnson Treatment” LBJ was the master of the Senate – could always get his bills passed

Johnson introduces Great Society

“. . The Great Society rests on abundance and liberty for all. It demands an end to poverty and racial injustice, to which we are totally committed in our time. But that is just

the beginning. . . "

Elements of the Great Society…

• • •

Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965

$1 billion in federal aid

Textbooks and library materials Medicare… Medicaid…


• • • •

Money for 240,000 units of low-rent public housing Aid to low and moderate income families to buy homes Creation of Department of Housing and Urban Development Appointment of Robert Weaver as head of HUD – 1 st African American in Cabinet

Immigration Act of 1965

Ended quotas based on nationality

Reversed immigration laws of the 1920s

Opened the door for non European immigrants to come to the U.S.

Johnson’s War…

LBJ Expanded the Conflict in Vietnam

After Diem’s death the South was unstable

LBJ felt US creditability is at stake and he did not want to give in to communist aggression

Remembered Truman’s “loss of China”

Gulf of Tonkin Incident

In August 1964, a North Vietnamese gun boat fired a torpedo at The USS Maddox

Two days later the Maddox and another destroyer opened fire on the North

The USS Maddox had been collecting information off the coast of N. Vietnam

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

• •

Johnson asked Congress for permission to extend bombing into North Vietnam Congress adopted the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution which gave LBJ broad military powers in Vietnam – the equivalent of a blank check in Vietnam

The Reality?

• • •

LBJ had prepared the resolution months before hand Public was not aware that we had been conducting raids against N. Vietnam Commander of one of the Am. Destroyers not really sure an attack had taken place

Operation Rolling Thunder

• Limited bombing had failed to slow movement of communists across the border to S.V.

• Government in S.V. near collapse • Vietcong fired on U.S. Marine base – killing 8 marines and wounding 100+ • Reprisal against N. Vietnam • Campaign of gradually intensifying air raids


• • • • •

In March 1965 LBJ began sending troops Sec. of State advised LBJ to deploy troops By June of 1965, 50,000 US troops were fighting in Vietnam By the end of 1965, 180,000 US troops were sent to Vietnam By 1967 there were 500,000 US troops in Vietnam

War of Attrition?

• General William Westmoreland • Bombing would exhaust N.V. resources • U.S. ground forces defeat the Vietcong in S.V.

• VC defect and supporters scatter • Restore political stability to South Vietnam

War of Attrition?

• •

US bombers pounded VC and North Vietnamese positions - Napalm and Agent Orange VC would not surrender - high casualties - North supplied by China and USSR

By 1967 - 3 million refugees due to US Seek and Destroy missions


And Destroy…

Credibility Gap?

“We are not about to send American boys nine or ten thousand miles away from home to do what Asian boys ought to be doing for themselves.”

Credibility Gap?

• Americans viewed scenes of the war on T.V. • Told that we were defending freedom • Saw human suffering • Read about bombing of population centers and destruction of southern villages • Told that we were winning the war but casualty figures mounted to 800/month in 1967

Senator J. William Fullbright

• • •

Chaired Senate Foreign Relations Committee Criticized the war Called for a negotiated withdrawal

Financial Cost of the War?

$21 billion/year

Levied 10% surcharge on individual and corporate taxes

Tapped into Social Security fund