power point 38 - Long Branch Public Schools

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The Stormy 1960s

Keys to the Chapter

 Focus on four (4) key major issues:  Civil Rights  War on Poverty and the expansion of the welfare state  Vietnam and the Anti-War Movement  Counter Culture Movement Key Figures: JFK, LBJ, MLK, Malcolm X

Inauguration Jan. 1960 “The Best and the Brightest” begins


 Ivy League (best and the brightest)  RFK and McNamara  Peace Corps  Tax Cuts  Race to the Moon  Reduced Tariffs to increase trade  Civil Rights

Kennedy and Foreign Affairs

 Bay of Pigs (April 1961)  Meeting with Khrushchev in ( June 1961)  The Berlin Wall (August 1961)  Cuban Missile Crisis (October 1962)  Increase in Military Advisors and troops to Vietnam (15,000 by November 1963)  American University Speech and the call for peace with Russia (June 1963)

Kennedy and Khrushchev, Vienna, 1961 ------------ Khrushchev feels he is “young and weak”

Protest by a Buddhist Monk Against Diem’s Repression as Vietnam “heats up

The Cuban Missile Crisis

How close did we get?

JFK and Civil Rights

 Freedom Riders (1961)  James Meredith (“Ole Miss-Sept. 1962)  Birmingham (1963)  Medgar Evers (June 1963)  Washington and MLK (August 1963)  Birmingham Church Bombing (Sept. 1963)  Southern Democrats block Congressional bills from passing

Greyhound Bus Burning After White Attack on Freedom Rides Bus, Alabama, May 1961

US Army Convoy at the University of Mississippi to Enforce James Meredith’s Admission

Civil Rights Protestors Sprayed with Fire Hoses in Birmingham

Civil Rights Segregation Protesters Flee from in Birmingham, Alabama---T.V. Changes everything

The “ I Have a Dream ” Speech in Front of the Lincoln Memorial

Thousands of Marchers Gather at the Lincoln Memorial for the March on Washington and Dr. King’s “ I Have A Dream ” Speech

The 16 th Street Baptist Church After the Bombing

Kennedy’s Limousine Immediately Before the Assassination

The Killing of Kennedy- November 22, 1963  The importance of Kennedy  Nation mourned young president  Remember more for the spirit than accomplishments  Later revelations tarnished Kennedy ’s reputation  Womanizing and Involvement with organized crime  President Lyndon Johnson   Sworn in on plane in Dallas before leaving (with Kennedy ’s body) for Washington, DC Kept most of Kennedy ’s team, although he distrusted them ( “the Harvards”)

THE LBJ PRESIDENCY  War on Poverty and the “Great Society”  Aid to Education    Medical Care for poor and elderly Immigration Reform Voting Rights Act of 1964 (24 th Amendment) • • • • • Vietnam and the “Gulf of Tonkin Resolution” Civil Rights Israel and the start of the unending problem Vietnam and the “Tet Offensive” The Counter Culture Movement (3 P’s)

 1964 – Civil Rights bill passed after lengthy Southern filibuster      Banned racial discrimination in most private facilities open to the public Strengthened federal government’s power to end segregation in schools and other public places Created federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to eliminate discrimination Included Title VII ending gender discrimination Backed up in 1965 with Affirmative Action executive order to pvt. Contractors getting federal contracts

 The Great Society  Billion dollar “War on Poverty”   Economic & welfare measures based on New Deal 1962 – The Other America • • By Michael Harrington 20% of the population (40% of the black population) lived in poverty • Moved public to support Great Society proposals

1964 Presidential Race – LBJ vs. Goldwater   Goldwater attacked federal income tax, Social Security, Tennessee Valley Authority, civil rights laws, nuclear test-ban treaty, and especially the Great Society Republican slogan Right” • Democratic reply Nuts” “In Your Heart You Know He’s – “In Your Guts You Know He’s • August 1964 – Gulf of Tonkin incident changes LBJ  Johnson won a landslide with 61% of the vote

LBJ and the Voting Rights Act  Mississippi had largest black population • Only 5% of those eligible were registered to vote  Ways to keep blacks from voting • • Poll tax, literacy test, intimidation 24 th amendment (ratified February 1964) outlawed poll tax in federal elections  Freedom Summer (1964) • Blacks join white students in massive voter registration drive in Mississippi

 White attacks during Freedom Summer  June 1964 – 1 black and 2 white civil rights workers from North disappeared in Mississippi • • Badly beaten bodies found buried FBI arrested 21 whites (including a sheriff)  White juries refused to convict  Newspapers rally against the actions of “Southern Justice”

Photographs of Civil Rights Workers after They Disappeared in Mississippi

 Early 1965 – King resumed voter-registration in Selma, Alabama    Blacks 50% of the population but only 1% of registered voters State troopers used gas and whips to stop a peaceful march from Selma to Montgomery Police Actions Captured on Television  President Johnson makes stirring speech on national television after events in Selma  Nation “must overcome the crippling legacy of bigotry and injustice…And we shall overcome.”

A Civil Rights Marcher Attempts to Ward Off the Attack of State Troopers

A Civil Rights Marcher Suffering from Exposure to Tear Gas, Holds an Unconscious Woman in Selma, Alabama 1965

The Rise of the African American Vote, 1940-1976

Black Power  Passage of Voting Rights Act of 1965 marked end of an era in civil rights movement:  Pre-1965 – movement focused on nonviolent protest in South  Post-1965 – movement marked by militant confrontation, led by radical and sometimes violent spokespersons, and often aimed not at interracial cooperation but at black separatism • Moderate Martin Luther King, Jr. attacked by new generation of younger black leaders • Malcolm X becomes the symbol of the new strategy

Black Power Key Events

 Watts – 1965  Newark and Detroit – 1967  Malcolm X (killed Feb. 1965)  Black Panthers  MLK (killed April, 1968)

Watts Rioting - 1965

Watts Riots - 1965

Rioting at Newark, NJ, 1967

Black Power  Malcolm X  Joined Nation of Islam while in prison  Pushed for black separatism, attacking “blue-eyed white devils”  Broke with Nation of Islam in 1964 and travelled to Mecca, where he saw white Muslims • Softened his attacks on whites  February 1965 – killed by 3 Nation of Islam members while speaking in New York City

Malcolm X Killed 1965

Black Panther Party

Black Power

Assassination of MLK. April 1968

Destruction Caused by Chicago Riots After Dr. King's Assassination


 Early 1965 – escalation begins  End of 1965 – 184K US troops there  By 1968 – 500,000 troops and $30 billion annually sunk into Vietnam  South Vietnam is spectator as war is Americanized  World opinion will turn against America

U.S. Combat Troops in Vietnam

US Battle Deaths in Vietnam

Vietnamese Civilians Escaping an Accidental Napalm Bombing of Their Village

 Domestic protests over Vietnam Increase  1965 – campus “teach-ins”  Protests increased as war got worse and draft reached more young men • “Hell no, we won’t go!” Resisters burned draft cards - go to Canada  News showed US troops burning hunts and civilians burned with napalm  News showed pictures of dying U.S. troops • “Hey, hey, LBJ, how many kids did you kill today?”

 Early 1968 – Vietnam was longest and most unpopular war in US history  Government failed to explain rationale for war to public  Johnson claimed he could see “the light at the end of the tunnel” • Most Americans did not believe him

 January 1968 – Tet Offensive  Communist offensive over entire country • Eventually defeated by US forces – the Tet offensive was a military defeat for the Viet Cong but bad public relations for USA.

 Public turned against the war • Military leaders requested 200,000 more troops (staggering amount to public)

A South Vietnamese Officer Kills a Bound Viet Cong Suspect During the Tet Offensive

 March 31, 1968 – Johnson surprise T.V. talk  Announced he would freeze US troop levels and scale back the bombing  Also announces that “I shall not seek, and I will not accept the nomination of my party for another term as your president.”  Orders that bombing raids over North stop

Johnson’s Speech Announcing He Would Not Run Again For President 3/31/68

 Summer of 1968 – Democrats fight for nomination  V.P. Hubert Humphrey carrying on LBJ policies    Senator McCarthy and Senator Kennedy fought for “dove” vote, with Kennedy gaining momentum June 5, 1968 – Kennedy wins in California primary but is then killed August Dem. Convention turns into a “zoo”

Robert Kennedy Immediately After the Shooting

Police and Demonstrators Fighting Outside 1968 Democratic National Convention

Results of election: 1968

 Nixon won a close race against Humphrey  Democrats kept both houses of Congress  Nixon had won no mandate to do anything  Wallace received almost 10 million votes • Largest 3 rd party vote in US history

“I knew from the start if I left a woman I really loved -- the Great Society - in order to fight that bitch of a war in Vietnam then I would lose everything at home.” Lyndon Johnson

THE COUNTER CULTURE MOVEMENT  “Trust no one over 30”  Roots in Beatnik generation of 1950s  Can be attributed to the 3 P’s  Population (young)  Prosperity (economics of war)  Protest Movement

 1964 – Free Speech Movement  University of California at Berkeley  Students objected to ban on political debate in campus space  Used sit-ins to protest university  Spreads to campuses across the country  Vietnam “radicalized” the middle class

Free Speech Rally at UC Berkeley, 1964

A Love-In Demonstration 1967

 1960s sexual revolution • 1960 – birth control pill introduced • Increased experimentation with sex  Gay rights • 1969 – attack by off-duty police at Stonewall Inn in N.Y. energized gays  Drug use leads to organized drug gangs and urban decay of the 1970s  Protest movement of the 1960s would lead to violence of the “radicals” in the 1970s