Chapter 21Notes - Greenwood County School District 52

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Transcript Chapter 21Notes - Greenwood County School District 52

Chapter 39
Mrs. Marshall
1960 Election
 Democrat-
John F. Kennedy
 Republican-Richard Nixon
John F. Kennedy was elected with
Lyndon Johnson as his Vice President
 Kennedy’s
Inaugural Address“ask not what your country can
do for you-ask what you can do
for your country”
 Kennedy’s
programs were known
as “The New Frontier”
 In
order to stimulate the
economy Kennedy announced his
support for a general tax cut
which Congress approved.
 1969-two
American astronauts
(Edwin Aldrin & Neil Armstrong)
walked on the moon.
Vienna Summit
talks held in 1961 between JFK
and Khrushchev in which
Khrushchev insisted the west must
recognize the sovereignty of East
Germany and remove all troops
from West Berlin.
Berlin Wall
 August
1961-in order to stop
East Germany from escaping to
West Berlin. Barbed wire fence
later replaced with a concrete
wall 12 feet tall.
 In 1989 the wall came down as a
combined result of both internal
and external pressures.
 23rd
Amendment-passed during
Eisenhower administrationbecame law in 1961-gave the
District of Columbia 3 electoral
votes in presidential elections.
Flexible Response
a policy that could use conventional
as well as nuclear options to replace
Eisenhower’s brinkmanship and
massive retaliation.
 Strengthened the regular military
 Created “special forces” units
 Encouraged European countries to
supply more troops for NATO
Alliance for Progress
 JFK’s
10 point program to help
undeveloped countries of Latin
America with a $20 million dollar
U.S. commitment.
Bay of Pigs
April 1961
CIA plan, approved by Eisenhower, to
overthrow Castro with an invasion force of
Cuban exiles who had been trained in
Guatemala. JFK approved the landing of the
1500 man force based on CIA’s calculation
that it would spark an uprising against
No uprising-1200 captured by Castro’s
forces. Later ransomed for food and medical
Cuban Missile Crisis
Castro asked USSR for defensive
weapons. USSR gave offensive and
defensive weapons. US spotted the
launching pads in its U-2 over-flights
of Cuba.
 JFK called for their withdrawal and
ordered a quarantine around Cuba to
keep Russian ships from bringing the
missiles to the sites,
 Khrushchev agreed to have ships turn
around. The U.S. pledged not to
invade Cuba.
Hot Line
In an attempt to lessen tensions
between the US and the USSR
direct lines of communication
were established between the
White House and the Kremlin
JFK’s Attorney General- Robert
Director of the FBI- J. Edgar
Freedom Riders- when they were
beaten in Alabama, Robert
Kennedy sent in federal marshals
to protect them.
Voter Education Project
1- supported by John F. Kennedy
and Martin Luther King,Jr.
2- Attempted to register
disenfranchised African
American voters in the south.
University of Mississippi
African American, James Meredith
tried to enroll in a class and met
violent opposition. Kennedy
ordered federal marshals and
federal troops to Mississippi as
well as federalizing the National Guard
to assure Meredith’s admittance
March on Birmingham
King attempted to desegregate
Birmingham, Ala. Civil rights
demonstrators were met with
attack dogs, electric cattle prods
and high pressure water hoses
March on Washington, D.C.
August 1963-they were
demanding passage of civil rights
legislation. Dr. King delivered his
famous “I have a dream” speech
Warren Court Decisions
 Gideon
v Wainright (1963) a
right to an attorney in all cases
punishable with a jail sentence
 Miranda v Arizona (1964)
requires suspects to be informed
of their right to remain silent
JFK was assassinated November
22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas by Lee
Harvey Oswald
Oswald was killed while in custody
by Jack Ruby
Chief Justice of the US Supreme
Court (1953-1969) Earl Warren.
He headed the Warren Commission
which was set up to investigate
the assassination of President
They determined Oswald acted
November 22, 1963 Lyndon Baines
Johnson took over as President of
the U.S.
His vision for America was called
“The Great Society”. It included
civil rights laws as well as
initiatives launched between
1964-1967 and was designed to
expand social welfare and
eliminate poverty.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
 Banned
racial discrimination in
mist private facilities open to the
public strengthened the federal
government’s power to end
segregation and created the
EEOC (Equal Employment
Opportunity Act) to eliminate
discrimination in hiring
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
 Aug.
 LBJ asked Congress for authority
to take all necessary measures to
repel any armed attack against
forces of the US-gave the
President a blank check to use
force in Southeast Asia.
Election of 1964
 Johnson
was opposed by Barry
Goldwater, a republican from
 Johnson won the election
 Democrats increased their
congressional majority
Executive Departments
 Department
of Transportation
 Department of Housing and
Urban Development
 Robert
Weaver, a African
American, served as the first
head of HUD
 Medicare for the elderly and
Medicaid for the poor went into
Elementary and Secondary School Act
 first
large-scale program of
federal aid to elementary and
secondary schools on the basis of
the number of needy children.
Immigration and Nationality Act
of 1965
 Rescinded
the Quota Act of 1924
and an annual limit if 290,000
immigrants were established
with no more than 20,000 from
any one country
Twenty-fourth Amendment
 1964
 Abolished
the poll tax
Voting Rights Act of 1965
 empowered
the federal
government to oversee voter
registration and elections in
counties that had used tests to
determine voter eligibility or
where registration turnout had
been less than 50% in the 1964
Watts Riot 0f 1965
in a black ghetto in Los Angeles.
White police officers stopped black
driver-he resisted arrest, they forcibly
subdued him. Incident led to 5 days
of destruction of property and the
death of 34 people. Many more were
injured or arrested.
 First episode in a series of “long hot
summers” in the late 1960’s when
blacks went to riot and loot in one
city after another.
Malcolm X
 originally
Malcolm Little and later
called El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz
 American Black Muslim leader.
Assassinated 1965 by a rival
Nation of Islam gunman
Black Panthers
founded in 1966 as the Black Panther
Party for Self-Defense.
 A militant organization which fought
to establish revolutionary socialism
through mass organizing and
community based programs.
 Phrase “Black Power” frightened
many whites. They rejected the “nonviolent” approach.
 Stokley Carmichael & Marcus Garvey.
 Party fell apart in the late 1970s.
 Martin
Luther King, Jr
assassinated in Memphis, Tenn.
April 4, 1968 by James Earl Ray.
announces he will not accept
the nomination for another term
as President.
 June
5, 1968 Robert Kennedy
was assassinated in California.
1968 Election
Democratic Party-Hubert Humphrey
(LBJ’s VP)
 Republican Party- Richard Nixon
(platform- to end the war)
 American Independent Party-George
Wallace of Alabama. They took a prowar position.
Nixon won the election. Democrats
maintained control of House and
Counter Culture
 1960’s
social and political
reaction by young people to what
was seen as the hypocrisy of the
mainstream middle class culture
.Popular belief characterized the
movement as “sex, drugs, rock
and roll”
Free Speech Movement
- a student protest that began when
officials tried to ban students from
setting up information tables on the
campus of the University of California
, Berkley in 1964. Became a
movement of free speech and
academic freedom.
 Mario Savio was the spokesman. Sitin ended when police arrested over
800 students.
“hippie movement”
 refers
to the cultural phenomena
of the counter-culture movement
of going to the Haigth-Ashbury
district of San Francisco in 1967.
 Youth
International Party or Yippies
 Poked fun at both the “hippie”
culture and the political
 Led by Abby Hoffman, Jerry Rubin
and Paul Krassner
 Accused of criminal conspiracy and
inciting to riot at the 1968
Democratic National Convention
peaceful gathering of nearly
400,000 of the counter-culture in
Bethyl, New York in 1969.
 Music/art
festival and anti-war