The Reformation

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Transcript The Reformation

The Reformation
A break from the religious ways thinking during the Middle Ages
Early Reformers
John Wycliffe (wik-lif), 1300 A.D.
1. Questioned the belief that the
only way to salvation was
through the church.
-Bible ultimate authority not church
2. Denounced church members for
wealth. Bodied exhumed and
burned by church after his
nature death
3. Translated bible from Latin to
English.
-Read for yourself
Condemned as a heretic
Is this a modern example?
The Crystal Cathedral
John Huss, 1400’s
1. Influenced by Wycliffe
and spread his teachings.
2. Challenged Pope’s
authority and wealth.
3. Excommunicated in
1410.
4. Burned at the stake in
1415 for heresy.
Martin Luther, 1483-1546
1.
German Monk who led protest against
the church.
2.
People gain salvation through God, not
good works.
-Pope and priests not needed for salvation.
Its up to you.
-Translated bible into German while
hiding.
3.
Nailed 95 Theses (complaints) to a
church. (Celibate and Indulgences).
Martin Luther cont…
4. Started the Lutheran faith
making the pope and emperor
mad
5. Luther supported by German
princes who wanted to limit
power of Roman emperor
6. This started a religious war.
-Pease of Augsburg allowed
Germans to pick the religion
of their state. (not the people)
The new religions were called…
Protestant
Calvinism, 1536 AD
1.
Believed in predestination – the idea that
God knows if you’re going to heaven or
hell before you are born. You will go to
that place no matter how good or bad of a
life you live.
2.
Very strict: Punished people for dancing,
singing lewd songs, drinking, making
noise during church.
3.
Basis for Presbyterian church.
How would you act if
you new that no matter
what you do in life you
will be going to
heaven?
Anglican: The Church of England
1.
King Henry was Catholic, but wanted an
annulment and the Pope said “no.” He wanted to
remarry and try for a boy.
2.
Henry changed England to the Protestant religion
of Anglican or “Church of England” and
remarried.
3.
He made himself the head of the religion, kicked
Catholic churches out and took all their land and
money.
4.
His sick Protestant son takes over and dies, His
daughter Mary takes over and tries to convert
England back to Catholic. Called “Bloody Mary.”
5.
Elizabeth takes over and returns to Protestant.
English Protestantism
Henry VIII, King of England
Wanted a divorce from Catherine
of Aragon
Their daughter, Mary
Second Wife: Anne Boleyn
Henry and Anna’s daughter:
Elizabeth I
The Catholic Counter-Reformation
What was it?
1. Catholic Church’s attempt to
*Gain back the people who left.
*Keep more members from leaving.
2. The Council of Trent, 1545A.D.
*Met in Trent, Italy to discuss problems with
the church.
*Kept some things the same and reformed
others.
Some Things Never Change…
1.
Only Church can explain the bible.
2.
Both faith and good works are necessary for salvation.
3.
Pope is highest and final authority of the church.
4.
Church rituals stay the same.
5.
Clergy may not marry.
Some Things Do…
1.
Limits and then eliminates sale of indulgences
2.
Tightened discipline of clergy
-Only the worthy may join
-Seminaries to train them
3. Inquisition increased
-Suspected heretics on trial
4. “Index” list of banned books
5. Jesuits sent to spread Catholic ideas and teachings
Effects
End of religious unity in
Europe.
Causes
Unhappy over Church
policies and practices.
Luther’s challenge to
church authority.
Opposition of some
German princes to
Authority of Holy
Roman Emperor.
Spread of Calvinist
ideas
Key Development
The Reformation
1517-1563
Strengthening of state
authority over church
authority.
Spread of education
Strengthening of European
Middle class.
-Protestant religion
emphasized the work
ethic and lifestyle they had.