A break from the religious ways thinking during the Middle Ages
John Wycliffe (wik-lif), 1300 A.D.
1. Questioned the belief that the
only way to salvation was
through the church.
-Bible ultimate authority not church
2. Denounced church members for
wealth. Bodied exhumed and
burned by church after his
3. Translated bible from Latin to
-Read for yourself
Condemned as a heretic
Is this a modern example?
The Crystal Cathedral
John Huss, 1400’s
1. Influenced by Wycliffe
and spread his teachings.
2. Challenged Pope’s
authority and wealth.
3. Excommunicated in
4. Burned at the stake in
1415 for heresy.
Martin Luther, 1483-1546
German Monk who led protest against
People gain salvation through God, not
-Pope and priests not needed for salvation.
Its up to you.
-Translated bible into German while
Nailed 95 Theses (complaints) to a
church. (Celibate and Indulgences).
Martin Luther cont…
4. Started the Lutheran faith
making the pope and emperor
5. Luther supported by German
princes who wanted to limit
power of Roman emperor
6. This started a religious war.
-Pease of Augsburg allowed
Germans to pick the religion
of their state. (not the people)
The new religions were called…
Calvinism, 1536 AD
Believed in predestination – the idea that
God knows if you’re going to heaven or
hell before you are born. You will go to
that place no matter how good or bad of a
life you live.
Very strict: Punished people for dancing,
singing lewd songs, drinking, making
noise during church.
Basis for Presbyterian church.
How would you act if
you new that no matter
what you do in life you
will be going to
Anglican: The Church of England
King Henry was Catholic, but wanted an
annulment and the Pope said “no.” He wanted to
remarry and try for a boy.
Henry changed England to the Protestant religion
of Anglican or “Church of England” and
He made himself the head of the religion, kicked
Catholic churches out and took all their land and
His sick Protestant son takes over and dies, His
daughter Mary takes over and tries to convert
England back to Catholic. Called “Bloody Mary.”
Elizabeth takes over and returns to Protestant.
Henry VIII, King of England
Wanted a divorce from Catherine
Their daughter, Mary
Second Wife: Anne Boleyn
Henry and Anna’s daughter:
The Catholic Counter-Reformation
What was it?
1. Catholic Church’s attempt to
*Gain back the people who left.
*Keep more members from leaving.
2. The Council of Trent, 1545A.D.
*Met in Trent, Italy to discuss problems with
*Kept some things the same and reformed
Some Things Never Change…
Only Church can explain the bible.
Both faith and good works are necessary for salvation.
Pope is highest and final authority of the church.
Church rituals stay the same.
Clergy may not marry.
Some Things Do…
Limits and then eliminates sale of indulgences
Tightened discipline of clergy
-Only the worthy may join
-Seminaries to train them
3. Inquisition increased
-Suspected heretics on trial
4. “Index” list of banned books
5. Jesuits sent to spread Catholic ideas and teachings
End of religious unity in
Unhappy over Church
policies and practices.
Luther’s challenge to
Opposition of some
German princes to
Authority of Holy
Spread of Calvinist
Strengthening of state
authority over church
Spread of education
Strengthening of European
emphasized the work
ethic and lifestyle they had.