Transcript Slide 1

Good teaching, good teachers
and comparative analysis
Fernando Reimers
Learning from comparison
Generation of hypotheses, greater variation
Cross-national data not causation
Self-reported data in surveys
Transfer in context, no single policy lever
Some questions are not resolved by empirical evidence
• How does the practice work in context?
• How does the context differ?
• What adjustments are necessary?
Difficult tradeoffs
• Local control vs. national standards
– Most countries have national standards
– They enable economies of scale in the preparation
of instructional material
– Allow alignment of instruction to those standards
and as a result can get students to perform better
in those assessments
– Is this better than allowing parents and local
communities to decide what their children should
Limitations of knowledge base
• Selective view of reality. For instance, much
information on literacy, numeracy and science.
Limited information on civic competencies.
• But most countries teach civics and citizenship
skills. Finland.
• Limitations to define teacher quality as ability
to produce value added in a limited set of
assessment instruments.
How can schools help?
What do teachers need to know and
be able to do?
Subject matter
Pedagogical knowledge
Differentiate instruction
Learners development
Work with others
• Professional Standards for Teachers
• (1) Application. The Professional Standards for Teachers define the
pedagogical and other professional knowledge and skills required of all
teachers. These Standards are used by teacher preparation providers in
preparing their candidates, by the Department in reviewing programs
seeking state approval, and by the Department as the basis of
performance assessments of candidates. Candidates shall demonstrate
that they meet the Professional Standards by passing a Performance
Assessment for Initial License: (a) In the practicum or practicum equivalent
phase of preparation for the Initial License; or
(b) As part of the Performance Assessment Program.
• The Department will issue guidelines for each type of performance
assessment to reflect differences in growth in professional knowledge and
• (a) Plans Curriculum and Instruction.
• (b) Delivers Effective Instruction.
• (c) Manages Classroom Climate and
• (d) Promotes Equity.
• (e) Meets Professional Responsibilities.
• (a) Plans Curriculum and Instruction.
• Draws on content standards of the relevant curriculum frameworks to plan
sequential units of study, individual lessons, and learning activities that
make learning cumulative and advance students' level of content
• Draws on results of formal and informal assessments as well as knowledge
of human development to identify teaching strategies and learning
activities appropriate to the specific discipline, age, level of English
language proficiency, and range of cognitive levels being taught.
• Identifies appropriate reading materials, other resources, and writing
activities for promoting further learning by the full range of students
within the classroom.
• Identifies prerequisite skills, concepts, and vocabulary needed for the
learning activities.
• Plans lessons with clear objectives and relevant measurable outcomes.
• Draws on resources from colleagues, families, and the community to
enhance learning.
• Incorporates appropriate technology and media in lesson planning.
• Uses information in Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) to plan
strategies for integrating students with disabilities into general education
(b) Delivers Effective Instruction.
Communicates high standards and
expectations when beginning the lesson:
– Makes learning objectives clear to students.
– Communicates clearly in writing and speaking.
– Uses engaging ways to begin a new unit of study
or lesson.
– Builds on students' prior knowledge and
How do we produce those skills?
• Fundamental attribution error
• Good teachers and Good teaching
• Developing Quality results from a series of
• Recruitment
Pay and benefits
Working conditions.
Management styles and leadership styles.
Initial Preparation
Teacher Development and support
Employment Conditions
Teacher Evaluation and Compensation
Teacher engagement in reform
Engaging Universities
How do we transfer practices?
• How does the practice work in context?
• How does the context differ?
• What adjustments are necessary?