American Dilemmas - St. Edward's University

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Transcript American Dilemmas - St. Edward's University

Economic Inequality
Learning Objectives
Critically analyze social problems by
identifying value perspectives and applying
concepts of sociology, political science, and
Use knowledge and analyses of social
problems to evaluate public policy, and to
suggest policy alternatives, with special
reference to questions of social justice, the
common good, and public and individual
Opportunities to discuss course
• Today- 12:00-2:00
• Wednesday 10-2
• Required
– American Dilemmas Handbook pp. 16-26
• Optional
– Gender Inequality (Chapter 4) Kendall
– Inequality Based on Age (Chapter 5) Kendall
– Inequality Based on Sexual Orientation (Chapter 6)
• The Exam is now February 21st
• A study guide will be on line for Thursday
The Poor
• Historically Between 12-13% of the Population
• Recession has caused this to increase (15%)
• Low Wage Jobs or do not Work full time
The Poor over Time
Who are the Poor: Age
Race and Ethnicity
Who are the Poor
• Employment
• Family Composition
• Region
Consequences of Poverty
• Lower Quality of Life
• Less access to health care
• Higher Crime Rates
Why are the Poor, poor?
• There are Multiple Causes, which makes Policy
difficult- which one do you address?
– Low Social Mobility
– Educational inequalities
– The Transformation of the Economy
– Family Structure
Solutions to Poverty
• The national government provides two types
of benefits
– Means-tested benefits: conditional benefits
provided by a government to individuals whose
income falls below a designated threshold
– Non-means-tested benefits: benefits provided by
government to all citizens, regardless of income;
Medicare and social security are examples
Social Insurance Programs
• Usually Non-Means
• Prevent People from
Falling into poverty
Public Assistance
• Usually Means Tested
• Commonly referred to
as welfare
• Many Receive it
Cash Assistance
• Monetary Transfers
• Temporary Assistance
for Needy Families Act:
Families on Welfare
State Benefits Vary
Non-Cash/ In-Kind Assistance
 The Transfer of a tangible
 Subsidized Housing
 Medicaid
The Problem of Poverty
 Too Many root causes
 Solving the Problem would require
broad social reform
 Those harmed by the problem do not
have a voice
 States do not want to become Welfare
 Federal and State Governments have
no money
Benefits of Poverty?
Discrimination based on Minority Status
What is a minority group
• Does not refer to numerical size
• Minority groups:
– Share distinct physical or cultural characteristics
– Are denied access to resources available to other groups
– Accorded fewer rights, privileges and opportunities
Protected Classes
• A much more accurate and precise term
• characteristics or factors which can not be
targeted for discrimination and harassment
Federally Protected Classes
• Civil Rights Act of 1964
– Race
– Color
– Religion
– National origin
– Gender
• Age
• Disability status
• Veteran status
• Genetic Information
Terms to Know
• Prejudice
• Discrimination
They are not the Same thing
Ascribed Statuses
• Genetically Ascribed
• People shape opinions
based on these
• It is an ascribed status
• Gender Inequality is called Sexism
The move for Gender Equality
• Early Feminist
Movement- Political
and Economic
– Property laws
– Working Conditions
– 18th and 19th
The Current Status of Gender
• policy must be
reasonable and not
arbitrary, and must rest
on some ground of
• Some Exemptions still
Gender Discrimination in Education
• De Jure segregation is
• Title IX
• Where we have seen
Gains in Education
Where Gender discrimination in Education still
• Going on For Terminal Degrees (J.D, PHD, M.D)
Gender Discrimination in the Work Force
• Occupational selection
• A dual labor marketPink Collar Jobs
• A Glass Ceiling
The Wage Gap
• Women earn about 77% of what men earn
(full-time, for the same Year)
• This is not Unique to the United States
The Wage Gap over Time
Why The Wage Gap: Career Choice
Why the Wage Gap
• Occupational Sex-Segregation
• Longevity
• Family and Children
• Negotiations
• All things Equal
Women in the Military
• Women are 15% of the
Armed Forces
• Some areas Remain
Closed off
Gender discrimination against males
• Avoidance of female
dominated professions
• Insurance rates based
on gender
• The Military Draft