Transcript Clicker Quiz Approximately what percentage of U.S. workers were union members in 2010? a) b) c) d) 6% 12% 22% 34% 0% a) 0% 0% b) c) 0% d)

```Clicker Quiz
1
Approximately what percentage of U.S.
workers were union members in 2010?
a)
b)
c)
d)
6%
12%
22%
34%
0%
a)
0%
0%
b)
c)
0%
d)
2
Women are much less likely to be union
members than men. This is:
a) because women have
fundamentally different
b) because women are more
likely to be in less-unionized
industries and occupations
c) because unions are legally
allowed to discriminate
against women
d) not true
0%
a)
0%
0%
b)
c)
0%
d)
3
Over the last few decades, industrial
production has shifted from the Northeast and
Midwest to the South and Southwest regions
of the U.S. This fact is most consistent with
the:
a)
b)
c)
d)
managerial-opposition hypothesis
union-growth hypothesis
substitution hypothesis
structural-change hypothesis
0%
a)
0%
0%
b)
c)
0%
d)
4
The “monopoly union” model assumes
that the union:
given as the firm’s demand for
labor curve
b) will be able to increase both the
wages and employment of its
members
c) will attempt to negotiate an
“efficient contract” with the firm
d) attempts to maximize the wage
rate
0%
a)
0%
0%
b)
c)
0%
d)
5
π1 and π2 are firm isoprofit curves. The monopoly union outcome
is given by point ū. Which of the following is a true statement? If
the firm pays:
a) Wx and employs Qx workers, its
profit will be lower than at ū
b) Wx and employs Qx workers, its
profit will be higher than at ū
c) Wy and employs Qy workers, its
profit will be lower than at ū
d) Wx and employs Qx workers, its
profit will be lower than if it pays
Wy and employs Qy workers
0%
a)
0%
b)
0%
c)
0%
d)
Wage
Wu
Wy
ū
Wx
y
x
π1
π2
D
Qu
Qx Qy
Labor
6
In the diagram below, EC is the employer concession
curve and UR is the union resistance curve. The UR
curve will shift up if the expected costs of a strike to
the:
a)
b)
c)
d)
Wage
union are reduced
union are increased
firm are reduced
firm are increased
EC
W*
UR
T*
0%
a)
0%
b)
0%
c)
0%
d)
Expected strike length
7
If nonunion workers in a given occupation are
paid \$16 per hour while union workers receive
\$20 per hour, the pure union wage advantage
is:
a)
b)
c)
d)
20%
25%
80%
0%
a)
0%
0%
b)
c)
0%
d)
7
If nonunion workers in a given occupation are
paid \$16 per hour while union workers receive
\$20 per hour, the pure union wage advantage
is:
a)
b)
c)
d)
20%
25%
80%
0%
a)
0%
0%
b)
c)
0%
d)
8
The nonunion wage rate may rise as
the result of a union wage increase
because of the:
a)
b)
c)
d)
spillover effect
superior-worker effect
threat effect
compensating wage
differential effect
0%
a)
0%
0%
b)
c)
0%
d)
9
The measured union wage advantage may
overstate the pure union wage advantage
because:
a)
b)
c)
d)
workers who lose their jobs in the union
sector may seek and obtain jobs in the
nonunion sector, reducing wage rates in the
latter
nonunion employers may increase the wages
they pay their workers to reduce the
likelihood their firms will become unionized
workers who lose their jobs in the union
sector may prefer to remain in the union
sector, hoping to be recalled rather than
accepting lower-paying nonunion wages
unionized plants tend to be less efficient,
resulting in lower marginal products of union
workers
0%
a)
0%
0%
0%
b)
c)
d)
10
Unions may reduce economic efficiency
by:
a) providing an “exit” mechanism
b) insisting promotions be based on
ability rather than seniority
c) imposing restrictive work rules
d) reducing worker turnover
0%
a)
0%
0%
b)
c)
0%
d)
11
The allocative efficiency loss associated
with unions arises because:
a) job losers in the union sector take away
jobs from more productive workers in the
nonunion sector
b) the value of lost output in the union
sector is greater than the value of any
additional output in the nonunion sector
c) the union wage rises above the value of
marginal product while the nonunion
wage falls below it
d) job losers in the union sector are
unqualified to work in the nonunion
sector, so society loses their potential
output
0%
0%
0%
a)
b)
c)
0%
d)
12
Empirical estimates generally show that
unions reduce:
a) both firm profitability and economic
efficiency
b) firm profitability but improve
economic efficiency
c) economic efficiency but there is no
consensus regarding their effects on
firm profitability
d) firm profitability but there is no
consensus regarding their effects on
economic efficiency
0%
a)
0%
0%
b)
c)
0%
d)
13
In 2008 the ratio of female to male
hourly wages was approximately
a)
b)
c)
d)
45%-55%
60%-70%
75%-85%
90%-100%
0%
a)
0%
0%
b)
c)
0%
d)
14
Comparing the experiences of African Americans
and women, evidence suggests that African
Americans are more likely to be subject to
a) employment discrimination, while
women are more likely to be subject
to human capital discrimination
b) occupational discrimination, while
women are more likely to be subject
to wage discrimination
c) wage discrimination, while women
are more likely to be subject to
employment discrimination
d) employment discrimination, while
women are more likely to be subject
to occupational discrimination
0%
a)
0%
0%
b)
c)
0%
d)
15
Assume that all workers are equally productive,
but that male wages are \$14 and female wages
are \$10. An employer who employs only male
workers has a discrimination coefficient of:
a)
b)
c)
d)
at
at
at
at
most 0.4
least \$4
most \$4
least 10/14
0%
a)
0%
0%
b)
c)
0%
d)
16
According to Becker’s “taste-fordiscrimination” model:
a) a person is judged on the basis of the
average characteristics of her or his
demographic group
b) the process of competition will cause
discrimination-based wage differentials to
persist over long periods of time
c) there will be discrimination-based wage
differentials because a firm with market
power distinguishes between different
groups with different elasticities of labor
supply
d) the process of competition should put
discriminating employers at a competitive
0%
0%
0%
a)
b)
c)
0%
d)
17
According to the “demand and supply”
interpretation of Becker’s model, which one of
the following will tend to reduce the male-female
wage gap?
a) An increase in the supply of
female labor
b) An increase in the discrimination
coefficients of some employers
c) An increase in the number of
nondiscriminating firms
d) An overall increase in the
demand for labor
0%
a)
0%
0%
b)
c)
0%
d)
18
The statistical discrimination model and
Becker’s “taste-for-discrimination”
model:
a) are alike in that both predict discriminating
firms will have higher profits
b) are alike in that both predict discriminating
firms will have lower profits
c) differ in that the former results in
potentially increased profits; firms with a
taste for discrimination will have lower
profits
d) differ in that the former results in lower
profits; firms with a taste for
discrimination will have higher profits
0%
0%
0%
0%
a)
b)
c)
d)
19
Empirical estimates of the extent of
discrimination may be upwardly biased if:
a) certain variables which have a
positive effect on productivity are
omitted from the study
b) certain variables which have a
negative effect on productivity
are omitted from the study
c) many variables (such as
education or occupation) reflect
discriminatory decisions
d) all of the above
0%
a)
0%
0%
b)
c)
0%
d)
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