Preparing, Conduct and Evaluation of Exercises to Test

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Transcript Preparing, Conduct and Evaluation of Exercises to Test

IAEA Training in Emergency Preparedness and Response
Exercise Objectives
Module L-053
Lecture
Objectives
• Understand what exercise objectives are
• Understand how they affect the scenario
• Be familiar with planning and response
objectives
• Understand the concept of exercise program
• Know how to select exercise objectives
• Know how to develop exercise evaluation
criteria
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Why Response Objectives
• Exercises measure performance, i.e. do the
plans and procedures actually work?
• To measure performance, one must define
performance objectives
• How performance is measured
• Performance is measured by results!
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What are Response Objectives?
• Actions that the overall emergency response
organization must be able to accomplish
• Timings: how quickly must these actions be
accomplished
• Extent: how much must be accomplished
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Response Objectives - References
• There are a number of references for
emergency response objectives, including:
• NUREG 0654
• INPO guidelines
• EPR-METHOD 2003
• EPR-METHOD 2003 is a practical consolidation
of current guidelines and practices:
• It is the basis for this course
• It must be adapted to the national context
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Criteria
• Support each emergency response objective
• Allow a breakdown of the function for the
purpose of:
• Procedures development
• Evaluation
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Emergency Response Objectives
• The following list of on-site and off-site response
objectives is based on EPR-METHOD 2003
• Refer to EPR-METHOD 2003 for suggested
timing and details
• Keep in mind that the following is an overview:
• Several details can be added
• Levels and timings are suggested in EPR-METHOD
2003 but need to be approved by the appropriate
national authorities
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On-site Response
Objectives: Examples
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1.
Establishing Emergency
Management and Operations
• Execute on-site emergency response
promptly without impairing performance
of the normal operational safety
functions
• Make functional Operational Support
Centre
• Activate Emergency Operations Facility /
Incident Command Post
• Make Emergency Operations Facility /
Incident Command Post fully functional
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2.
Identifying, Notifying and
Activating
• Promptly determine the appropriate
emergency class or the level of the
response, initiate on-site actions
• Detect the emergency
• Classify the emergency
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2. Identifying, Notifying and
Activating (cont’d)
• Notify and provide updated information
to the off-site notification point
• Notify with appropriate message
• Provide the right initial information
• Initiate actions based on the event
classification
• Activate the on-site and off-site
organizations
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3.
Taking Mitigatory Actions
• Take all appropriate actions to minimize
consequences of radiation emergency
• Confine the hazard
• Dispatch emergency response teams
• Prevent or reduce releases
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4.
Protecting Emergency Workers
• Keep the dose to personnel and emergency
personnel below established limits
• Assess the on-site hazard
• Broadcast appropriate messages
• Keep non-essential personnel out of harms way
• Implement dose control procedures for
emergency workers, including off-site assistance
services (e.g. fire fighters)
• Provide medical first aid
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5.
Protection of the Public
• Promptly assess the potential off-site impact
and communicate it effectively to the off-site
authorities
• Update the emergency classification as required
• Recommend protective actions
• Project dose off-site
• Carry out survey around the station
• Communicate the results in a timely manner
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Off-site Response
Objectives:
Example
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1.
Notification and Activation
• Promptly and effectively inform, activate and
coordinate all organizations, groups and
agencies that perform emergency response
tasks
• Notify all response organizations
• Activate sufficient personnel to be able to
perform critical functions in a timely manner
• Notify and inform the IAEA and neighbouring
countries
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2.
Urgent Protective Actions
• Promptly implement urgent protective
actions to prevent deterministic health
effects and to avert doses consistent with
national guidance
• Properly assess required protective actions
• Based on emergency classification
• Based on surveys
• Instruct the public in a timely manner
• Evacuate the precautionary action zone in a timely
manner
• Evacuate affected zones outside the PAZ in a timely
manner
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2.
Urgent Protective Actions (Cont’d)
• Implement sheltering in a timely manner
• Implement stable iodine distribution in a timely manner
• Evacuee support services available in a timely manner
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Contamination control
Reception centres
Evacuee centres
Traffic control
• Implement measures to prevent or control spontaneous
evacuation
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2.
Urgent Protective Actions (Cont’d)
• Continue surveys of affected areas
• Update gamma surveys regularly
• Get isotopic data in a timely manner
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3.
Emergency Worker Protection
• Keep the dose to emergency workers below
established limits
• Implement dose control procedures for
emergency workers in the urgent protective
action planning zone
• Make appropriate decisions regarding radiation
protection measures
• Implement contamination control for emergency
workers and equipment leaving the affected
area
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4.
Medical and Other Emergency
Services
• Provide adequate medical, police, and fire
support services
• Medical care of evacuees, including
conventional care and care for overexposed
individuals
• Maintain security and other essential services in
the evacuated zone
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5.
Public Information
• The public is kept accurately informed of the
hazard and of measures in place to protect
the population
• The Public Information Centre is operational in
timely manner
• Information provided to the media is clear and
timely
• Information by various organizations is
coordinated
• Rumours are controlled
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6.
Longer-term Protective Actions
• Effectively implement longer term protective
actions and interventions related to food in a
manner consistent with national guidance
• Identify affected areas
• Implement food control measures in accordance
with established levels
• Relocate or resettle populations in accordance
with established levels
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7.
Non-radiological Impacts
• The psychological impact on the affected
population, emergency workers and
relatives is minimized
• Keep evacuees informed
• Time of return
• Health impacts
• Keep populations in the affected areas informed
• Health impacts
• Planned measures
• Keep emergency workers and their families informed
• Health impacts
• Measures taken to minimize them
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Response Objectives - Summary
• The previous examples provide an overview
of response objectives
• Response objectives are results-oriented
• For each objective, criteria can be defined
based on the national context, plans and
procedures
• Timing must be defined based on a
reasonable assessment of the risk and on
practical considerations
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Exercise Objectives
• Exercise objectives are related BUT are not
the same as response objectives
• Example:
• Response objective: evacuate the precautionary
action zone in four hours:
• not necessarily practical during an exercise
• Exercise objective: evacuate a representative
sample of the precautionary action zone (say
one tenth) in 30 minutes
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Exercise Objectives (Cont’d)
• It is not necessary to verify all response
objectives in each exercise
• Some objectives cannot be simultaneously
verified
• e.g. activation during the day and activation at night
• It is usually not practical or overly costly to
verify all response objectives in one exercise
• Verification of all response objectives
should be part of a well planned exercise
program
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Exercise Program
• It is a plan to conduct a series of exercises at a
pre-established frequency, covering all response
objectives over a set cycle
• A five-year cycle is common, with one exercise per
year for each major facility
• Over five years, all response objectives should be
tested
• Some response objectives may be tested every
exercise, while others may not
• e.g. test assessment every time, but not evacuation
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Selection of Exercise Objectives
• Be practical; over-ambitious exercises are
not necessarily better exercises
• Select key response objectives and those
that have not been tested for some time
• Adapt the response objective to the scope of
the exercise. This then becomes a specific
exercise objective
• Keep track of objectives tested
• Exercise matrix
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Factors Affecting the Selection
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Restrictions on exercise start time
Exercise duration
Participating organizations
Scope
Political context
Resources available (human and financial)
Equipment available (e.g. reactor simulator)
Preparation time available
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Objectives and Scenario
• The exercise objectives must be selected
first
• Then, the scenario is developed to meet the
objectives
• Sometimes, it is difficult to meet all objectives
and adjustments must be made
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Standard Scenario Objectives
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On-scene control
Medical response
Radiological response
Media relations
Public Health
International assistance
Post-exercise critique
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On-scene Control
• Emergency response services arrive promptly at the scene
• On-scene command and control is promptly established
• The medical response at the scene is well coordinated with other
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response organizations, particularly radiological response, in terms
of cooperation, command and control and communication links
The radiological response at the scene is well coordinated with
other response organizations, particularly medical response, in
terms of cooperation, command and control and communication
links
The capability to direct and control emergency operations is
demonstrated and maintained
The transfer of responsibility at the site, if it occurs, is carried out
seamlessly and effectively
Immediate conventional hazards are promptly mitigated
Notification of public health and governmental authorities is
demonstrated
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Medical Response
• The medical responders at the emergency scene promptly address the
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immediate medical consequences (critical first aid)
Life-saving medical first aid is given priority over decontamination
Field triage is performed appropriately based on medical needs,
contamination and potential overexposure
Critical patients are promptly transferred to the appropriate hospitals
while minimizing, to the extent possible, the spread of contamination
Patient transport is performed safely using appropriate equipment
Patient care during transport is adequate
Effective initial and subsequent medical management of symptomatic,
asymptomatic, externally contaminated, and internally contaminated
patients is provided
Medical authorities correctly assess the current and potential public
health issues
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Radiological Response
• Qualified radiological specialists promptly notify medical
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authorities of the presence of high radiation
A safe perimeter is promptly established and confirmed safe
by scene survey and measurements of contamination
Capability of continuous monitoring, dose evaluation, and
radiation protection of emergency workers, patients, and the
public is demonstrated
Measures to prevent the spread of contamination are taken
Procedures for the monitoring and decontamination of
emergency workers, equipment, and vehicles are adequate
Hazardous sources are recovered or made safe in a timely
manner
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Media Relations
• The media at the scene is properly managed
including rumour control
• Media liaison is coordinated between the
various response organizations
• Factual media statements are formulated
and issued to the public
• Medical information is promptly provided to
relatives and the media; and is coordinated
with other response organizations
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Public Health
• The principal short-term risks to the population are
identified and characterized
• Decisions are taken and actions are outlined to
allay fear and panic
• An action plan that conforms to governmental
guidelines is developed to control potential
exposure from food production, sales, and
consumption
• A program of long-term medical follow-up is
established
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International Assistance
• The need for additional specialized
assistance or medical referral is identified
and assessed
• If required, international assistance is
requested
• Appropriate coordination is established with
international experts
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Post Emergency Critique
• The capability of the emergency responding
organization to conduct a post-exercise selfassessment and responders' exit interviews
is demonstrated
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Summary
• First define response objectives that apply to your
situation
• Then establish an exercise program for each
facility, region or level of government concerned
• Define: exercise start time, exercise duration,
participating organizations, scope, resources
available, equipment available, and time available
• Select practical and feasible exercise objectives
based on the response objectives
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