Overseas Development Institute

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Transcript Overseas Development Institute

Making the case: using
research-based evidence
for policy advocacy
John Young, ODI, London
[email protected]
BOND Advocacy and Capacity Building Group
Launch Event , Monday 2nd June 2008
Overview
• ODI and RAPID
• Evidence-based policy: 6 Lessons
• The changing role of CSO’s
• Challenges and opportunities
• An example
• Evidence-based policy in
development network
• Conclusions
• Sources of further information
ODI & RAPID
• ODI
– UK’s leading Development
Think Tank
– c.80 researchers
– Research, advice and public
affairs on development policy
• RAPID
– Focuses on policy processes
– Research, advice, public affairs
+ capacity development
– Works with producers, users
and intermediaries
1. Policy processes are complex
Identify the problem
Commission research
Analyse the results
Choose the best option
Establish the policy
Implement the policy
Evaluation
1. Policy processes are complex
Cabinet
Donors
Policy
Formulation
Agenda
Setting
Parliament
Decision
Making
Civil Society
Monitoring and
Evaluation
Private
Sector
Ministries
Policy
Implementation
2. Research is one factor
Kate Bird et al, Fracture Points in Social Policies for Chronic Poverty Reduction, ODI WP242, 2004
(http://www.odi.org.uk/publications/working_papers/wp242.pdf)
3. Research is important
“The results of household
disease surveys informed
processes of health service
reform which contributed to a 43
and 46 per cent reduction in
infant mortality between 2000
and 2003 in two districts in rural
Tanzania.”
TEHIP Project, Tanzania: www.idrc.ca/tehip
4. Needs a systematic approach
External Influences
Socio-economic and
cultural influences,
donor policies etc
The links between policy
and research communities –
networks, relationships, power,
competing discourses, trust,
knowledge etc.
The political context –
political and economic structures
and processes, culture, institutional
pressures, incremental vs radical
change etc.
The evidence – credibility, the
degree it challenges received
wisdom, research approaches
and methodology, simplicity of
the message, how it is packaged
etc
4. Needs a systematic approach
What researchers
need to know
What researchers
need to do
How to do it
• Get to know the
• Work with them – seek
policymakers.
commissions
• Who are the policymakers? • Identify friends and foes.
• Strategic opportunism –
• Is there demand for ideas? • Prepare for policy
prepare for known
• What is the policy process?
opportunities.
events + resources for
• Look out for policy windows.
others
Political Context:
Evidence
• What is the current theory?
• What are the narratives?
• How divergent is it?
Links
• Who are the stakeholders?
• What networks exist?
• Who are the connectors,
mavens and salesmen?
•
•
•
•
•
Establish credibility
Provide practical solutions
Establish legitimacy.
Present clear options
Use familiar narratives.
• Get to know the others
• Work through existing
networks.
• Build coalitions.
• Build new policy networks.
• Build a reputation
• Action-research
• Pilot projects to
generate legitimacy
• Good communication
• Build partnerships.
• Identify key networkers,
mavens and salesmen.
• Use informal contacts
5. Needs additional skills
Storytellers
Engineers
Networkers
Fixers
6. There are good tools
Overarching Tools
- The RAPID Framework
- Using the Framework
- The Entrepreneurship
Questionnaire
Communication Tools
- Communications Strategy
- SWOT analysis
- Message Design
- Making use of the media
Policy Influence Tools
- Influence Mapping & Power Mapping
- Lobbying and Advocacy
- Campaigning: A Simple Guide
- Competency self-assessment
Context Assessment Tools
- Stakeholder Analysis
- Forcefield Analysis
- Writeshops
- Policy Mapping
- Political Context Mapping
Research Tools
- Case Studies
- Episode Studies
- Surveys
- Bibliometric Analysis
- Focus Group Discussion
The (changing) role of CSOs
• Is huge: Worth $12bn globally,
reach 20% of world’s poor,
provide 40% health &
education services in SSA.
• Is changing: service provision
→ policy engagement.
• Can be very effective: Globally, eg
Jubilee 2000; locally eg Animal Health in
Kenya,
• Is uncomfortable:
– with governments: lack of trust
– with donors: emphasis on GBS & policy
– with academics/policy advisers: weak evidence
How CSOs influence Policy
How CSOs influence Policy
Obstacles to CSO Engagement
Key problems and solutions
External
Difficult Political Contexts
• Campaigns
• Boomerangs
• Policy Pilots
Internal
Weak understanding of
political contexts
• Rigorous context assessments
Weak engagement
• Better strategies for engagement at all parts of
the policy cycle
Inadequate use of
evidence
• Collecting the right evidence for each situation
(qualitative vs quantitative etc)
Weak communication
• Better communication: publications, events, faceto-face
Isolation
• Collaboration with other CSOs, donors and
government agencies: Networks
Capacity constraints
• “Systemic” capacity-building: of organisations
and networks within their contexts
SMERU & UCT in Indonesia
• Fuel subsidy increasingly
recognised as regressive and
not benefiting the poor.
• Became financially
unsustainable in 2005.
• Gvt plan to  subsidy  UCT
to poor.
• Huge programme. Little
impact.
• What to do?
SMERU & UCT in Indonesia
• Small independent study by
SMERU in 2005 identified
opportunity for  benefit through
CCT focusing on health,
education & nutrition + Improved
targeting.
• Commissioned by BAPPENAS to
do larger feasibility study.
• Series of meetings & dialogues.
• Adopted as policy and
operationalised in 2007
SMERU & UCT in Indonesia
• Challenges:
– Political leverage
– Lack of tools to understand political
context
– Lack of lobbying skills & opportunities
– Lack of resources
– Associated with donors
• Success Factors:
– Credibility of SMERU
– Links with government and civil
society organisations
– Quality of research
– Impartiality
– Effective communication of results
RAPID support to CSOs
• Run workshops, seminars and
courses
• Established the evidence-based
policy in development network
• A “community of practice” to:
– Learn how research-based evidence can
contribute to better policy and practice.
– Do it themselves.
– Help others to do it
• www.ebpdn.org
Some members
• Africa Energy Policy Research
Network: a network to promote propoor energy policies.
• Center for the Implementation of
Public Policies promoting Equity
and Growth: works on Education,
Fiscal Policy, Health, Transparency
and Justice an Argentina.
• Unnayan Onneshan: works on propoor agricultural and trade policies
in Bangladesh.
• International Budget Project: works
to promote budget transparency
and accountability
ebpdn website
Conclusions
• CSOs are well placed to influence
policy with research-based evidence.
• To do it effectively they need to:
– Understand the political context
– Use a wholistic approach
– Establish the right relationships with all
stakeholders
– Collect the right sort of evidence
– Engage appropriately with the right
policy processes
– Communicate effectively
Further Information
ODI – www.odi.org.uk
RAPID - www.odi.org.uk/rapid
– Publications
– Case Studies
– Workshops and Seminars
– Tools and Toolkits
ebpdn – www.ebpdn.org
Contact: [email protected]