Restoration Literature

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Transcript Restoration Literature

Restoration Literature
Lecture One:
Time of Enormous Change
 two revolutions,
 a religious revolt
 great strides in learning.
Great Writers Flourish
 Milton
 Pope
 Dryden
 Swift
 Behn
Where Does the Term “Restoration”
Come from?
 In 1649, King Charles I was executed by the
 From 1649-1660 England was ruled by the
Lord High Protector, Oliver Cromwell and
 This period is called the Interregnum
The Restoration
 For a number of reasons England wanted no
more of protectorates
 Asked Charles II, the executed king’s son,
to come back to England and rule.
First Stuart King
 James VI and I, King of Scotland and
 Came to the throne 1603 when his cousin,
Elizabeth I, the last Tudor monarch, died
 Died 1625
Martyred King
 Charles I
 married Henrietta Marie de Bourbon,
daughter of the King of France
 Executed January 30, 1649
Restored King
 Charles II
 only 19 when his father is executed
 restored to the throne May 1660
 died 1685
Exiled King
 James II, brother of Charles II
 Married first, Lady Anne Hyde
 Married second, Princess Maria de Modena
 Abdicated 1688
 Died in Paris, 1701
England’s Only Co-regnants
 Mary II and William III
 Mary is the daughter of James II and Lady
Anne Hyde, Duchess of York.
 William is the son of King Charles II and
King James’s sister Mary and her husband
Willem II, prince of Orange-Nassau
 Mary died 1694
 William died 1702
The Last Stuart Monarch
 Anne, younger daughter of James II and
Lady Anne Hyde, Duchess of York.
 Died childless in 1714
 Passed the throne on to her cousins in the
House of Orange
from Hanover.
Simplified Reasons for Civil War
 The economic interests of the urban middle
class coincided with religious (Puritan)
ideology and this conflicted with
 The traditional (agrarian) economic
interests of the Crown and the allied
Anglican Church.
Confused by Christianity?
 If you are not up on the variations of
Christianity, I firmly suggest you look at
 Fu Jen English Dept’s World Religion pages
Who are the Puritans?
 A generalization, as there are wide variances in
this group.
 Included the Presbyterians, Independents,
Congregationalists, Baptists, Quakers. Most of
these religions are some form of Calvinism.
 Not only did the Puritans wish to “purify”
themselves, they also strove to "purify" both the
English church and society of the remnants of
"corrupt" and "unscriptural" "papist" ritual and
What are Papists?
 Derogatory term!
 Papist refers to those who follow the Pope, in
other words, Roman Catholics.
 For the Puritans, Roman Catholics were worse
than unbelievers.
 Puritans believed that Roman Catholics were
actually following the Anti-Christ in the shape of
the Pope, and at heart, they were nothing more
than idol worshippers.
What does this mean for individuals?
 In a broad sense, Puritanism represented
strict obedience to the dictates of
conscience and strong emphasis on the
virtue of self-denial.
Puritanism and Art
 It’s not that they didn’t like art, though they
were traditionally anti-theater (which for
them represented lying and immorality).
 But art should glorify God.
 One of England’s greatest poets, Milton,
was a staunch Puritan.
Puritanism and Wealth
 Puritanism encouraged an essentially
practical attitude to worldly affairs.
 success at business was a visible sign of
God’s blessing and approval.
 You might want to look at some of Max
Weber’s writings on Puritanism and the rise
of capitalism, if you like this stuff
Where Does that Leave Art?
 Art encourages contemplative virtues,
which the practical Puritan was inclined to
view as unnecessary, therefor frivolous,
therefor “sinful”.
The “Inner Light”
 Puritans believed that the “good life” could
only be lived by the “inner light” - the voice
of God in the heart - and to “hear” this
voice it was necessary to conduct the most
scrupulous self-inquiry.
Spiritual Auto-biography
 From this came a form of literature known
as the “spiritual autobiography,” which
became very popular during this period.
 John Bunyan’s Grace Abounding To The
Chief Of Sinners is one of the most famous
examples. (can be found in the Norton)
Two Consequences:
 Increased interest in, and understanding of,
the human heart in others as well as in the
self (see Pilgrim’s Progress)
 Encouraged the sense of loneliness of the
individual - a sense supported by the
growing economic individualism of the late
17th century
Puritan Values in England
 Puritanism’s influence in England peaked
during Cromwell’s rule, but it many of its
principals had become firmly entrenched in
the middle class during this period.
 As a result, English and Scottish culture are
heavily influenced by the Puritan ethic.
Cavaliers vs. Roundheads
 Cavaliers - nickname
 Roundheads -
for the Royalist side
 “Cavalier poetry” by
Lovelace and Suckling
among others
 Cavaliers are seen as
brave, graceful and
nickname of the
 Seen as dull, boring
and religious
 Remember, they
ultimately “lost” the
battle, so our view is
The Royalists Loose
 King Charles I executed
Contemporary engraving of the
execution of Charles I. He is
already being seen as a martyr.
Psychological Impact
 Killing an anointed king shocked and appalled much of the
English population.
 Just last year yet another film was made about the
Rupert Everett as Charles I in
To Kill a King. Cromwell was
played by Tim Roth.
Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658)
 Given the title “Lord High Protector”
 Former general in charge of Parliament’s
New Model Army
England under Cromwell
 Closed the theaters.
 Closed many of the inns.
 Many sports were banned.
 Swearing was fined, though if you kept up
at it, you could end up in jail.
Sundays are Holy Days
 Sunday, as the Lord’s Day, became a special day.
 If boys were found playing ball on a Sunday, they
could be whipped.
 Any kind of unnecessary work could result in a
 If women did unnecessary work on a Sunday, they
could end up in the stocks.
 Taking a walk for pleasure, unless you were
headed to church, could end you up with a fine.
No More “Papist” Feast Days
 Instead of the frequent saints’ feast days that
people celebrated, Cromwell instituted a
once-a-month fast day when people
couldn’t eat at all.
Changes to Christmas
 Many Christmas practices are rooted in paganism,
so Christmas celebrations were banned.
 Cromwell wanted people to remember that it was
the birth of Christ that they should be celebrating,
not fun, games and frivolity.
 Having a Christmas feast won you punishment,
and soldiers were sent out to snatch the cooking
goose if they found one.
 Traditional decorations like holly and ivy were
Modesty in Dress
 Women and girls should dress modestly as it says
in the Bible.
 Their hair should be covered, and make-up was
 If a soldier saw a woman out with make-up, he
would forcibly scrub it off of her face.
 Colorful clothes were also banned, so most
women wore black, grey or dark blue dresses that
were very simple.
 They would have white aprons and headcovers.
Modesty for Men, Too
 Men adopted severe, dark dress
 plain, short hair styles
Macauley Quote:
 "It was a sin to hang garlands on a Maypole, to drink a friend's health,
to fly a hawk, hunt a stag, to play at chess, to wear lovelocks, to put
starch into a ruff, to touch the virginals [a predecessor of the piano], to
read the Fairy Queen.--Rules such as these, rules which would have
appeared insupportable to the free and joyous spirit of Luther, and
coutemptible to the serene and philosophical intellect of Zwingle,
threw over all life a more than monastic gloom. The learning and
eloquence by which the great reformers had been eminently
distinguished, and to which they had been, in no small measure,
indebted for their success, were regarded by the new school of
Protestants with suspicion, if not with aversion. Some [teachers] had
scruples about teaching the Latin grammar because the names of Mars,
Bacchus, and Apollo occurred in it. The fine arts were all but
proscribed. The solemn peal of the organ was superstitious. The light
music of Ben Jonson's masques was dissolute. Half the fine paintings
in England were idolatrous, and the other half indecent."
Richard Cromwell, the Heir
 “Richard was an unlikely successor, coming to prominence only
because his two elder brothers both died before their father. Having
previously sat in parliament, but only having joined the Council of
State a year before his appointment as Protector, he had neither the
political experience nor the interest required to maintain his position.
He gave it up with little hesitation, resigning or "abdicating" after a
demand by the Parliament. This was the beginning of a short period of
restoration of the Commonwealth of England, but led to a state of
anarchy that resulted in the return of the exiled King Charles II and the
restoration. Unlike his father, Richard was not held accountable for
the death of King Charles I. He retired to obscurity, going into exile on
the Continent under the soubriquet of "John Clarke", but returning in
1680 to live out the remainder of his life in Britain.”
The King Restored
 When Richard abdicated, people longed for
the stability of the monarchy.
 Charles was recalled
 Not without political machinations
Act of Indemnity and Oblivion
 Charles granted an amnesty to Cromwell’s
 Not covered under this act were the judges
and officials involved in his father’s trial
and execution.
The Regicides
 “At that time 41 of the 59 signers of the king’s death
warrant were still alive. Fifteen of them fled: William
Goffe, John Dixwell, and Edward Whalley went to New
England; several went to Germany and Holland; and
Edmund Ludlow and four others went to Switzerland.
Some were able to convince Charles II that they had had
little to do with his father’s trial and that they were loyal to
the monarchy, and they were reprieved. Nine of those who
signed the warrant and four others closely connected with
the trial were hanged. Six others, who were deemed less
politically dangerous, were imprisoned for life; some were
later reprieved.”
 In May of 1660, Charles II finally came
back to England.
 He arrived in London to great cheering and
joy on his 30th birthday.
Repealing Cromwell’s Laws
 One of the first things Charles did when he
returned was to repeal all of Cromwell’s
 Inns reopened, theaters reopened, sports
started up again, and life in England became
“merry” again.
Political Pamphlets
 There was a thriving pamphlet culture.
 Pamphlets were anonymous political tracts
put out about all kinds of political
 The pamphlets had to be anonymous
because of the strict censorship laws
 Jonathan Swift, Daniel Defoe, Delariver
Manley wrote pamphlets
Charles II (1630-1685)
 He is probably best known as a ladies’ man
Lucy Walter
 Lucy Walter, mother of James Scott, the Duke of
 Lucy died in 1658, before Charles’s triumphant return to
 By then, Lucy and Charles had split and she lived a
squalid, loose life.
 Shortly before she died, Charles actually had his 9-year-old
son, James, kidnapped from her and brought to his mother
in France.
 Though this sounds cruel, Lucy soon died of venereal
disease, a terrible death, so it was probably for the best.
Many Mistresses
 During his reign Charles had twelve other
“important” mistresses
 Seven bore him children.
 He had fourteen acknowledged children.
No Legitimate Children
 Charles married Catherine of Braganza, the
Infanta of Portugal, in 1662
 never had children,
 though by all accounts, the king and queen
were happily married.
Queen Catherine
Why James as Heir is a Problem?
 James was a Roman Catholic.
 There was still great dear and suspicion
against Catholics in England, and the people
did not want a Catholic king.
James as King
 James II came to the throne on a wave of
popular sentiment after his brother’s death
in 1685
 in three short years he was deposed by his
own Protestant daughter
and son-in-law.
James II
Religious Problems
 Whether or not one chose the right religion
meant the difference between spending
eternity in Heaven or Hell.
 If the government did not support the
proper religion, in their eyes it could mean
the difference between a nation having
God’s blessing or not.
Charles’s Balancing Act
 Charles almost always successfully
balanced the official Church of England
Protestantism with the more radical brand
of Puritan Protestantism on one side and
Roman Catholicism on the other.
The Yorks as Catholics
 James’s Protestant wife, Anne Hyde,
Duchess of York, converted to Catholicism
towards the end of her life.
 She died in 1671, and shortly after, James
converted to Catholicism.
 By Charles’s royal decree, the princesses
Mary and Anne were brought up Anglican.
Further York troubles
 In 1673 James married the Italian princess
Maria of Modena, who was also Catholic.
 They had four children before James
became king.
 All died before he took the throne.
Prince James Francis Edward Stuart
 As long as James and Maria had no son, Princess
Mary, by James’s first marriage, was still second
in line for the throne.
 June 1688 James Francis Edward Stuart born.
 James’s reign was already troubled, and the
thought that a Catholic prince was next in line for
the throne was intolerable to Parliament and most
of the English population as well.
Abdication or Coup?
 December 1688: William of Orange arrived in
England with a large force
 James fled for France, in fear of his life.
 Remember, James had been a young man of 16
when his father was executed.
 Like his brother, he spent most of his early life
facing danger and possible death.
 Parliament saw this as an abdication, and named
William and Mary joint rulers.
The Pretenders
 James never accepted defeat, and claimed
the throne for the rest of his life, as did his
son,“The Old Pretender” and
 his grandson,the “The Young Pretender,” or
Bonnie Prince Charlie as he’s often called in
Final Uprising
 Many Scottish people never accepted the
House of Orange, and were persecuted
because of it until a final revolt in 1745,
which the English finally crushed for once
and for all.
William and Mary
 The new co-regnants
Bloodless Revolution
 Technically the second civil war in England.
 Although it’s called bloodless, James
continued to attempt to regain the throne
until the decisive Battle of the Boyne in
Ireland, July 1690.
 Blood was spilt, but very little for such a
large overthrow of a king.