Transcript Section 2
Influx of gold and silver from America into Europe led to
inflation (rising prices).
Growing population increased demand for land and food
also driving up prices.
Warfare, plague, and famine all led to population decline
and social tensions.
Accusations of witchcraft soared especially with the
common people. Mostly women were tried and hanged
after admitting to being witches after endless torturer.
The last of the religious wars
Denmark, Sweden, France and Spain
entered the war.
France, Spain and the Holy Roman
Empire battled for European leadership.
The most destructive battles Europe
had ever seen.
Mostly occurred on German soil.
The Peace of Westphalia officially
ended the Thirty Year War.
The 300 states (Holy Roman
Empire) were each recognized
independently, thus leaving
Germany in a fractured state for
nearly the next 200 years.
The most famous struggle was the English Revolution. At
its core was the struggle between the King (James I) and
King James I believed in the divine right of kings -this is,
that kings receive their power from God and are responsible
only to God.
The Puritans, inspired by Calvinist ideas, did not like the
king’s defense of the Church of England. The Puritans wanted
to make it more Protestant.
This conflict came to a head during the reign of James’ son,
Complaints grew until England slipped into civil war in 1642.
The battle ensued between supporters of the king (the Cavaliers)
and the parliamentary forces (called the Roundheads because of
their short hair).
Oliver Cromwell led his New Model Army (roundhead followers)
and they purged parliament of any members who had not
supported him. All remaining members were called the Rump
The Rump Parliament beheaded Charles I, abolished the
monarchy, and declared England a commonwealth.
Eventually Oliver Cromwell took power and held it militarily
until his death in 1658.
More than a year later, parliament restored the monarchy in
the person of Charles II, the son of Charles I.
This brought back the religious conflict between the Church
of England, Catholics and Puritans. Parliament was very
A group of English nobleman invited William of
Orange to invade England.
With his wife Mary, they
raised an army and
“invaded” England, with little
or no bloodshed, a “Glorious
William and Mary took the throne in 1698 along with a Bill
of Rights. This bill recognized Parliament’s right to make
laws, prevented monarchs from raising armies, and
recognized the right to a trial by jury.
The Bill of Rights also granted Puritans, but not Catholics,
the right of free public worship. But in the end, few English
citizens, however, would ever again be persecuted for religion.
This was the basic foundation for a constitutional monarchy
Identify the following terms and People using your
Divine right of kings
Bill of Rights