Transcript The Mongols

The Mongols
Chapter 14
Mongol Culture
Nomadic pastoralists
Goats, sheep
Tribal - divided into clans
Leaders elected
Law code - Yassa,
meaning "order" or
nobility shared much of
the same hardships as
the commoners
severe penalties for crime
empire in
(1st) British
from the
of Mongol
and Turkic
tribes in
The Mongol Empire - largest
contiguous empire in world history
Chinggis Khan
Created alliances among Mongols
1206 - elected khagan (supreme
The Mongol War Machine
Mounted warriors
Flanking maneuvers
Tumens -10,000 troops
Messenger force
Adopted gunpowder & cannons
Conquest: 1207 – East –China;
West Islamic world
Muhammad Shah II defeated
Xi-Xia kingdom and Qin
Empire destroyed
Military strategies
rockets - disrupt enemy
Smoke - confused enemy
forces & to isolate portions
of an enemy force
Mongol army's discipline
distinguished - trained,
organized, & equipped for
mobility / speed
Mongol soldiers lightly
Mongol army functioned
independently of supply
lines - sped up army mvmt
Chinggis Khan’s rule
Capital - Karakorum
Shamanistic - tolerated other religions
Commerce thrived
Forbade looting / raping of enemies w/out permission
Divided the spoils to Mongol warriors & their families
instead of giving all to the aristocrats
Ögedei’s rule
1227 - Division of Empire after death of C.K.
-Three sons & one grandson
-Ogedei - third son - Elected great khan
Initially there were few formal places of
Sponsored several building projects in
Karakorum - palaces, schools & houses of
worship for the Buddhist, Muslim, Christian &
Taoist followers
Any resistance to Mongol rule was met with
massive collective punishment -- Cities
destroyed / inhabitants slaughtered if Mongol
orders defied
13th C attempts at a Franco-Mongo alliance
Military collaboration w/European Christians in
the Holy Land – Mongol support during the
Ninth Crusade in 1271
Golden Horde – Mongols
control Russia
Russia in the 1200s - Many
Mongols (Tartars) invade – 1236 –
led by Batu (grandson of Chinggis
1240 - Kiev sacked; Novgorod
Russians in vassalage to Golden
Commerce benefits
Moscow thrives
Kulikova – 1380 - Golden Horde
Ogedei Khan
Virgin of Vladimir
Head of Orthodox church – led
Russian resistance against
During the devastating Tatar
invasion, the Virgin icon
became the rallying point for
Many miraculous accounts sparing Russian people from
fires & devastations.
1395 – brought to Moscow –
the Russian political capital - as
a gesture of gratitude for
protection against the invasion
of Timur i Lang
Mongol Empire in Europe
Hungary conquered - 1240
Batu’s forces reached the gate of Vienna - Received
news of Ogedei’s death
Custom in Mongol military tradition - all princes had
to attend the kurultai to elect a successor.
Ogedei’s widow, Toregene took over the empire
Purged her husband’s Khitan and Muslim officials
Built palaces, cathedrals and social structures on an
imperial scale, supporting religion / education.
Toregene / most Mongol aristocrats support Ogedei's
son - Guyuk
Batu refused to come to the kurultai
4+ years - sudden power vacuum led to decline of the
Mongol unity
The western Mongol army withdrew from Europe the
next year
Mongols in the Middle East
Hulegu - Grandson of Chinggis Khan
– led assault on Islamic world
West to Mesopotamia & north Africa
1258 - Baghdad sacked
1260 - stopped by Sultan Qutuz of
(Egyptian Mamluks)
1335 - death of Abu Said Bahatur
Mongol rule in Persia fell into
political anarchy
The Ilkhanate was divided between
Persian warlords
Rabban Bar Sauma - ambassador of Great
Khan Kublai and Ilkhan traveled to Rome,
Paris & Bordeaux; met w/ major rulers of
the period in 1287-1288
Yuan dynasty
Kubilai Khan - Grandson of Chinggis
1271 - defeated Song Dynasty
Capital at Tatu (Beijing)
Convergence of Mongol & Chinese
Mongol women retain liberties
Chabi, wife of Kubilai, influential
Mongol rule – tolerant – patronage of
scholars, artists
Religious toleration
Buddhists, Nestorians, Latin Christians,
Daoists, Muslims
Marco Polo - visited Yuan court
Chinese resistance
Ethnic Chinese resist
Especially scholargentry
Protects peasant
famine relief
Tax & labor burden
Death of Kubilai
Dynasty already
Song revolt
1274/1280 - Mongols
attack Japan - Fail
By 1350s- territory lost
Ju Yanzhang - founds
Ming dynasty
Aftershock: The Brief Ride of Timur
Timur-i Lang - Turkish
Base at Samarkand
1360s – conquered Persia, Fertile Crescent, India, Russia
1405 – death - Empire dissolves
End of steppe nomad conquests
Enduring impact of Mongols – Black Plague
Early 1330s - deadly bubonic plague occurred in China.
Bubonic plague mainly affects rodents, but fleas can transmit the disease to
Once people are infected, they infect others very rapidly. Plague causes
fever and a painful swelling of the lymph glands called buboes, which is
how it gets its name. The disease also causes spots on the skin that are red
at first and then turn black.
Since China was one of the busiest of the world's trading nations, it was
only a matter of time before the outbreak of plague in China spread to
western Asia and Europe.
October 1347, several Italian merchant ships returned from a trip to the
Black Sea, one of the key links in trade with China. When the ships docked
in Sicily, many of those on board were already dying of plague. Within
days the disease spread to the city and the surrounding countryside. An
eyewitness tells what happened:
"Realizing what a deadly disaster had come to them, the people quickly
drove the Italians from their city. But the disease remained, and soon death
was everywhere. Fathers abandoned their sick sons. Lawyers refused to
come and make out wills for the dying. Friars and nuns were left to care for
the sick, and monasteries and convents were soon deserted, as they were
stricken, too. Bodies were left in empty houses, and there was no one to
give them a Christian burial."
The disease struck and killed people with terrible speed.