AP World History Chapter 14

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Transcript AP World History Chapter 14

AP World History
Chapter 14
The Last Nomadic Challenge:
From Chinggis Khan to Timur
Mongol Culture
• Nomadic pastoralists
– Goats, sheep
• Tribe
– Divided into clans
– Temporary confederations
– Leaders elected
• Kabul Khan
– 1100s, defeats Qin forces
– Grandson, Temujin
• Chinggis Khan 1207, expedition
Xi-Xia, Tangut king defeated
Kara Khitai defeated
Mongolian Unity
Khwarazm, Muhammad Shah II defeated
Xi-Xia kingdom and Qin Empire destroyed
1227, death of Chinggis Khan
• Capital at karakorum
Tolerated other religions
New administration
Commerce thrives
• Chinggis Khan
– Born Temujin
– Develops alliances among Mongols
– 1206, elected khagan (supreme ruler)
• 1227, division of empire
– Three sons, one grandson
– Ogedei, third son
– Elected great khan
Building the Mongol War Machine
• Mounted warriors
– Tumens,10,000 troops
– Messenger force
– Adopted gunpowder, cannons
Mongol Conquests
• Mongols first invaded kingdoms in China then turned
west to the Islamic world and finally conquered the
kingdoms of Russia.
• Chinggis Khan (Genghis Khan) mobilized the Horde to
invade many countries outside of Mongolia.
• Mongols were the most formidable nomadic challenge to
the stationary civilizations.
• Their powerful short bows, fired from horseback, were
devastating weapons.
• Harsh discipline, enforced through a formal code,
brought punishments and rewards for conduct.
China Under Mongol Rule
• The Mongols conquered the Northern kingdoms of
China. (Xi and Xia, completely destroyed over two
million people)
• The Mongols captured fortified cities those that resisted
were either killed or enslaved.
Mongols in Europe
• The armies of the Golden Horde, swept westward till
they reached into Poland and Russia.
• The Khan’s defeated the Russians in 1236 CE.
• Kingdoms were spared if they paid tribute. Kingdoms
that refused were burned to the ground and the soil was
turned red with blood.
• Ogedei renews attack on China
• Kubilai Khan
• Grandson of Chinggis Khan
• Attacks Song
• 1271, transformation to Yuan dynasty
• Capital at Tatu (Beijing)
Building the Mongol War Machine
• Mounted warriors
– Tumens,10,000 troops
– Messenger force
– Adopted gunpowder, cannons
Mongol Positives
• Mongol women retain liberties
– Chabi, wife of Kubilai, influential
• Mongol patronage
– Attracts scholars, artists
• Religious toleration
– Buddhists, Nestorians, Latin Christians, Daoists,
• Marco Polo
– Visits courtKubilai
• China
– Protects peasant lands
– Famine relief
– Tax, labor burden lessened
The Brief Ride of Timur
Timur-i Lang (Tamerlane)
Base at Samarkand
1405, death
– Empire dissolves
– End of steppe nomad conquests