Transcript Unit 4 Chapter 18 Mongols
NOMADIC EMPIRES AND EURASIAN INTEGRATION
Chapter 18 Review
DURING WHAT PERIOD DID THE NOMADS OF CENTRAL ASIA IMPACT THE OTHER GLOBAL CIVILIZATIONS OF THE EASTERN HEMISPHERE DURING THE POST CLASSICAL ERA?
A) 900 to 1100 B) 1100 to 1300 C) 1200 to 1400 D) 1300 to 1500 E) 800-900
WHAT WAS THE BASIC UNIT OF MONGOL SOCIETY?
A) The nuclear family B) The tribe C) The guild D) The city-state E) Band
HOW DID THE GEOGRAPHY OF CENTRAL ASIA AFFECT THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NOMADIC CULTURES?
NOMADIC ECONOMY AND SOCIETY
Clans, related languages sought trade, were prominent on caravan routes Fluidity of classes in nomadic society Two social classes: nobles and commoners Autonomous clans and tribes Religions: shamans, Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity; by tenth century, Islam
HOW DID THESE PEOPLE ADAPT TO THEIR ENVIRONMENT? WHAT ADVANTAGES DID THEIR ADAPTATIONS GIVE THEM?
Nomads drove herds in migratory cycles Lived mostly on animal products limited amounts of millet, pottery, leather goods, iron
DISCUSS THE MILITARY ORGANIZATION, TECHNIQUES, AND STRATEGIES OF THESE ASIAN NOMADS. HOW DID THESE ABILITIES MAKE THEIR MILITARY SO FORMIDABLE?
WHERE WAS THE CAPITAL OF THE MONGOL EMPIRE UNDER CHINGGIS KHAN?
A) Samarkand B) Karakorum C) Tatu D) Khwarazm E) Cambolu
Using Primary source material: Marco Polo Read the Primary source and highlight the following: Military structures Pleasure structures Economic structures Marco Polo ’ s impressions Discuss
Khan ("ruler") organized vast confederation of individual tribes for expansion Outstanding cavalry forces formidable military power Genghis Khan Kublai Khan
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING WAS NOT ONE OF THE POSITIVE ASPECTS OF CHINGGIS KHAN ʹ S IMPERIAL RULE?
A) He promulgated a legal code to end divisions and quarrels among the Mongol clans.
B) He brought peace to much of Asia.
C) He promoted the growth of trade and commerce.
D) He ordered the creation of huge pastures in northern China for the use of the Mongol clans.
E) He promised religious toleration for many different religious groups.
CONQUEST OF NORTHERN CHINA
Chinggis Khan, Mongols raided the Jurchen in north China 1211 Controlled north China by 1220 South China ruled by the Song dynasty Mongol/Yuan dynasty (founded 1279) Unsuccessful conquests of Vietnam, Burma, Java, and Japan by Khubilai
Equestrian skills Bows Mobile forces Mongol overlords oversaw local administrators Outlawed intermarriage Tolerated religions Confucianism lost government support
HOW DID THE MONGOLS COME TO CONQUER CHINA? WHAT WERE THE KEY ELEMENTS IN THEIR SUCCESS? Speed Fear Babies
WHAT WAS THE RELIGIOUS POLICY OF THE MONGOL EMPIRE UNDER CHINGGIS KHAN?
A) He was converted to Islam late in his life.
B) He practiced no religious beliefs himself, but tolerated Islam only.
C) All religions were tolerated in his empire.
D) Buddhism became the state religion of the Mongol empire.
E) After the Russian campaign the Mongols became Orthodox Christians.
FOLLOWING CHINGGIS KHAN EMPIRE?
ʹ S DEATH, WHAT WAS THE PROVISION FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE A) It was divided into four regional kingdoms, or khanates, ruled by his sons and grandsons.
B) It was centralized with a Mongol bureaucracy located at the Chinese capital of Tatu.
C) The empire immediately fragmented into its constituent tribes and clans.
D) It passed as a single government with its capital at Karakorum to Chinggis Khan ʹ s oldest son.
E) Mandarins from China were brought in to help administer the empire under the guidance of the grand khan .
DISCUSS THE ROLE OF EPIDEMICS IN THE DECLINE OF THE MONGOL EMPIRES. How were the Mongol
After the Mongols: The rise of the Turks
TURKISH EXPANSION INTO PERSIA AND INDIA
In the Abbasid Empire Mid 8 th – mide 10 th centuries Lived on borders Traded Joined Army 1055 – Tughril Beg recognized as sultan by caliph Successors extend rule to Syria and Paestine In the Byzantine Empire Began migrating to Anatolia in 11 th century 1071 – defeat Byzantines at Manzikert – take emperor Peasants see Saljuks as liberators Displaced Byzantine authority
WHO WAS TAMERLANE, AND WHAT WAS HIS LASTING LEGACY?
HOW DID THE TURKS COME TO TOPPLE THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE?
WHAT ROLE DID RELIGION(S) PLAY IN THE NOMADIC EMPIRES? WHAT GENERALIZATIONS CAN YOU MAKE? WHAT ARE THE SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES?
MAHMUD OF GHAZNI
Enemy of Buddhism and Hinduism Attacked temples and shrines Stripped Hindu and Buddhist establishments of their wealth Repressed Buddhism and Hinduism and promoted Islam