Nomadic Challenges from Chinggis Khan to Timur

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Transcript Nomadic Challenges from Chinggis Khan to Timur

Time for Mong0ls!!!
I. Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan
 Social Order
 Nomadic
 herded goats & sheep
 specific breed of horse for well being & warfare
 Basic Mongol Societal Unit:
 Individual Family Tribes & Clan
 Clans could join together to face a threat, etc.
 leaders
 elected by free men
 usually strong militarily
 lose following if unable to support peoples
A.Making of a Great Warrior
 Temujin- young Mongol
 Grandfather Kabul Khanfamous warrior
 Father chief- died
 Had few supporters
 Target by rival clans
 Overcoming obstacles
 election as khagan in 1206
 He became who your book
calls Chinggis Khan
 Actually better known as . . .
B. Building the War Machine
• Warfare
• Trained from youth
• accustomed to killing & death
• Variety of weapons: Short bow- could hit a
target at 400 yds while riding
• Soldiers- ALL CAVALRY
• Tumens consisting of 10,000 warriors
• Specialized forces of spies, map makers
• Exploding arrows, early bronze cannons
D. Continued Assaults
Conquest under Genghis
• 1207: First campaign of conquest against Xi Xia
& Manchu Jin
• Worse if you resisted- slaughter everyone
(scholars, some artisans spared)
• all paid tribute
• Some trouble vs. Qin but beat them anyway
acquired new weapons
Bamboo rockets
1219 Conquered Kara Khitai in Mongolia and
Muslim Khwarazam Empire of Muhammad
Shah II
Secret Strategy: Feigned retreat as battle
gained skills of Turkic horseman
D. Life under Mongols
Assaults were brutal,
however leadership
focused on rebuilding
and harmony
Uniform legal code,
written Mongol
Religious tolerance
Encouraged artisan
production, secured
E. Death of Chinggis & Division of
• 1226 Chinggis turned East
to finish slaughter of any
remaining resistance in
China; died of battle
injury in 1227
• Empire divided among 3
sons and grandson, Batu
• Ogedei (son) named great
Khan; directed further
• Areas of China & Persia
common property
Four Khanates of Divided Mongol
II. Mongol Drive West- Russia
 The Golden Horde
 Russia & Europe
 Batu (Genghis’s grandson)
began conquest 1236
 Russian princes did not work
 Tartars “people from hell” or
 Kiev resisted (utterly
destroyed); Novgorod
submitted (spared)
• Russia in Bondage
 Princes became vassals
paying tribute
 Peasants forced into serfdom
for protection
 Towns & Trade benefited
 Moscow arose as Russia’s
defender in 1380 @ Battle of
Kulikova; Golden Horde
• Effects of Mongols on
Russian Society
– Military Organization
– Motive for Political
– Formalized Russia’s
Isolation from W. Europe;
Renaissance &
– Protected Russia from
rising Poland, Lithuania,
• Mongol Retreat from Europe
– Europeans believed Mongols
to be Prester John until 1240
with conquest of Hungary
– Death of Ogedei caused
Mongol retreat
C. Mongol Assault on Islamic
• Hulegu (G. Khan grandson), ruler of
the Ilkhan Khanate, captured
Baghdad, murdered caliphate in
1258 (remember? End of _______
• Devastated and terrified Muslim
• Mongols defeated 1260 by
Egyptian slaves, Mamluks, with
assistance of Christians
• Hulegu returned to central Asia
with succession struggle
III. Mongols in China- Part 2
• Kubilai Khan, led conquest of Song
• 1271 change empire name from
Khanate to Yuan Dynasty
• Limited Mongol interaction with
– Forbade Chinese from learning
Mongol script; intermarriage
– Military remained separate in
traditional tent encampments
– Social Order: Mongol, Muslim,
North Chinese, Ethnic Chinese
– Rebuffed Confucian Scholars,
• But . . . Kubilai incorporated Chinese
into Mongol culture
– Built capital on ancient dynastic
– Empire used Chinese calendar
– Participated in Ancestor Worship
Gender Roles & Chinese Culture
 Mongol women
refused footbinding
retained freedom of movement-hunting
Retained property rights
Kubilai’s wife Chabi, influenced husbands leadership
• Mongol Tolerance & Patronage
 Kubilai attracted foreign scholars, artists- (Marco Polo)
 Muslim advisors advanced bureaucracy, astronomy, cartography,
 Insisted on Religious tolerance
Mongol Social Policies & Scholar Resistance
• Scholars despised Mongols
– Refused to reinstate exam
system-keep Confucians weak
– Moved Artisans, Merchants,
Actors up social hierarchy
• Mongols promoted urban
expansion, centers of trade
• Pursued policies improving
Peasants Plight
Increased crop lands
Restored granary system
Reduced peasant tax
Planned public education
D. Fall of Yuan- HOW?
• Failure of Military excursion Japan,
Vietnam hurt INVINCIBILITY reputation
• Leaders after Kubilai- corrupt, luxurious,
• Song loyalists, Scholars, Secret Religious
Sects organized uprisings
• By 1350s, Mongols retreated as chaos
• Peace restored by Ju Yuanzhang, peasant
leader, with foundation of Ming dynasty
IV. Mongol Global Connections
• Taught new methods of warfare
• Facilitated trade networks
• Elevated merchants, set precedents of
overseas expansion
• Created wealth, used to support arts
• Transmission of Bubonic plague from China
to Europe