Chapter 25 Earth Resources

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Transcript Chapter 25 Earth Resources

• Identify one alternative (renewable)
energy source associated with each of
the following:
– the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the biosphere,
and the lithosphere.
• Quiz tomorrow, chapter 25 and energy
concept map
Earth Resources:
What is the Biosphere?
• Region of earth that
encompasses all living organisms:
plants, animals and bacteria
• Includes lithosphere,
troposphere, atmosphere and
of the
skin on
an apple
• Living communities with similar climate, vegetation,
geographic location and other characteristics.
Abiotic Factors
• Abiotic Factors: Non-living parts of the environment
– Climate: sunlight, temperature, wind, and precipitation
– Topography: latitude, altitude, slope
– Atmosphere: oxygen, air pollution
– Soil: texture, pH, water, salinity
• Biotic: All of the living or once living parts of the
– Plants
– Animals
– Fungi
– Bacteria
Biome Classification
• Biomes are classified using climate data
(temperature and rainfall)
– Climate determines what organisms live where
Freshwater Biomes
• Ponds, lakes, streams, or rivers
Tundra - treeless land with frozen
ground called permafrost.
Tundra Soil – very low in nutrients
Boreal Forest (Taiga)
• Type of “Northern
Coniferous Forest” biome
• Long, cold winters
• Short, cool summers
• Drought tolerant,
evergreen trees
• Taiga Soil - very poor, low
in nutrients
Taiga (Boreal Forest)
Temperate Deciduous Forest (NC’s biome)
• Cool winters, warm
summers, high yearround precipitation
• Trees that drop leaves
during winter
• Soil - Fertile soil good
for agriculture
Temperate Deciduous Forest
Tropical Rain Forest
• warm temperatures, wet
weather, many plants and
• Nutrient poor soils
– Leaf litter decomposes too
rapidly to accumulate
Tropical Rain Forest
• Interior of continents
• Low yearly, mostly summer rain
• Soils range from poor to fertile, too dry to support
tree growth
• Dry region with little rainfall
• Cover ~30% land
• Soil – rich in minerals but poor
in organic materials
• Study of relationships
between living organisms
and their environment
• community of living organisms (biotic) interacting
with each other and their non-living (abiotic)
environment (soil, water, air, sunlight, etc)
– The bullfrogs’ ecosystem is a pond.
Ecological Succession
Succession refers to the orderly,
natural changes and species
replacements that take place in the
communities of an ecosystem over
Basically…succession refers to changes
to an ecosystem over time
Over time, succession returns to the natural state of the
• variations of life forms
within an ecosystem
• varies greatly from high
(rainforests) to low (polar)
• mass extinctions are when
large and sudden drops in
biodiversity occur
Coral reefs contain
great biodiversity
Diversity is Good!
• Two forms
1) different species – wheat vs corn.
2) genetic variation within a species – short vs long grain
Diversity is Good!
• Irish potato blight of 1846
– Farmers planted only two varieties of potato
– Microorganism destroyed both varieties
– 1 million people starved, 2 million emigrated