Document 7844813

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Transcript Document 7844813

Canadian Biomes
AKA: Our Home & Native Land
What is a “biome”?
• A biome is a collection of ecosystems that are
similar, or related to one another, based on the
types of plants they support.
• It is important to note that the plant-life that is
found in a biome is the direct result of the
climate that the region experiences – so a biome
will also have the same climatic features.
• Canada has four biomes within its borders.
1. The Tundra Biome
• The tundra is located in the northernmost regions of Canada –
up near the North Pole – in and around the Arctic circle.
• The climate is extremely cold which results in the freezing of the
soil and the formation of the permafrost – a soil layer that is
frozen year round due to the cold.
• There is very little precipitation.
• Plants are few and far between. Those that can grow must grow
and reproduce very rapidly in the short growing season. They
are often very small plants that form roots in the active layer of
the soil – the thin layer on top of the permafrost.
• Few plants means few animals as plants are the food source for
animals. Matter cycling is very slow due to extreme cold.
• Plants = Lichens, mosses, shorter grasses and shrubs.
• Animals = Polar bears, caribou, arctic foxes and ptarmigans.
Tundra Pics
2. The Boreal Forest
• The Boreal forest is located just south of the Tundra
and is the largest biome in Canada.
• It has a very temperate climate – hot summers and
quite cold winters, but, no permafrost.
• It receives a fair amount of precipitation.
• Matter cycling is quick in hot but slows in cold.
• Dominant plant life are coniferous trees – evergreens
such as pine, fir and spruce. Their conical shape and
needles allow them to cope very well in the boreal
forest climate. (Cold, snow, acidic conditioning)
• Animals = moose, bears, squirrels, rabbits, deer and
birds. Higher biodiversity than the Tundra.
Boreal Forest Pics
3. Temperate Deciduous Forest
• The temperate deciduous forest is found only in the southern
portion of Ontario and Quebec.
• It has a temperate climate – hot summer and cold winter (but not
as cold as boreal forest).
• Longest growing season and most precipitation of all Canadian
biomes – great for plants of all types which is great for many
animals = highest biodiversity.
• Higher temps and water result in rapid cycling of matter which
results in rich fertile soil.
• Dominant plants are deciduous trees with broad flat leaves that
maximize the great amount of sunlight that is offered. You will
also find many ferns & shrubs.
• Deciduous forest – three layers – canopy, understorey and litter.
• Animals = Deer, insects, shrews, mice, bears, weasels, wolves
and many birds.
Deciduous Forest Pics
4. The Grasslands Forest
• The grasslands are found in the southern regions of the
prairie provinces.
• The climate is temperate with a long growing season.
• It receives a fair amount of precipitation but not as much
as the deciduous forest.
• Matter cycling is very fast – result is incredibly fertile,
black soil.
• Biodiversity is at a good level, but, not near the level of
the deciduous forest.
• Dominant plants are grasses (not enough water for trees).
• Animals = Bison, prairie dogs, voles, mice, hawks, wolves,
snakes and insects.
Grasslands Pics
The Overall Picture