Chapter 4: Defining Intelligence

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Transcript Chapter 4: Defining Intelligence

Chapter 10: Challenges
for the future
The future
“Intelligence-led policing is crime fighting that is
guided by effective intelligence gathering and
analysis—and it has the potential to be the most
important law enforcement innovation of the twentyfirst century”
Kelling, G.L. and Bratton, W.J. (2006) 'Policing terrorism', Civic
Bulletin, 43, p. 6.
Public support for proactivity
ACPO market research report found that
Young people and working adults lower on the socio-economic
spectrum favored proactive, targeted, solution-oriented policing.
Midlife adults in the middle to higher socio-economic groups, older
men, and ethnic groups naturally identified with visible patrolling;
however, they could be readily convinced through logical argument
that proactive and targeted activities are the most effective and
It was only older women and the retired that retained a connection
with visible patrolling as a symbol of reassurance, relating visible
patrolling to perceptions of safety.
Bradley, R. (1998). Public expectations and perceptions of policing.
Police Research Group: Police Research Series, Paper 96.
Issues for management
How do we know that informants are telling the
How do we place covert information into a wider
context of criminality, especially when we may not
have confidential sources in other areas?
How do we manage the wider strategic
responsibilities and avoid degenerating into an
informant-led policing model?
5×5×5 Information/Intelligence Reporting System
Source evaluation
Always reliable
Mostly reliable
Sometimes reliable
Untested source
Information evaluation
1. Known to be true without
2. Known personally to the
source but not to the person
3. Known personally to the
source but not corroborated
4. Cannot be judged
5. Suspected to be false
5×5×5 Information/Intelligence Reporting System
Handling codes
1. Permits dissemination within the police service and to
other law enforcement agencies as specified (default
2. Permits dissemination to non-prosecuting parties
3. Permits dissemination to foreign law enforcement
4. Permits dissemination within originating force/agency
only: specify reasons and internal recipient(s). Review
period must be set.
5. Permits dissemination but receiving agency to observe
conditions as specified
Principle of proportionality
Sir John Stevens noted that the likely target from a
crime intelligence assessment of the highest risk for
a local police department…
‘will not be the head of an organized crime syndicate.
It is more likely that they will be a prolific 15-year-old
Stevens, J. (2001, 3-7 December 2001). Intelligence-led policing. Paper
presented at the 2nd World Investigation of Crime Conference, Durban,
South Africa.
Combating ‘surveillance creep’
Gary Marx identified ‘surveillance creep’, an
increasing acceptance of intrusion in the name of
crime control
The principle of proportionality is therefore a balance
of the apposite tactics applied to the appropriate
offenders and should be a tenet of intelligence-led
Data protection
Title 28 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 23
The purpose of 28CFR23 is to ensure that criminal
intelligence systems are operated and maintained so that
individual privacy and rights are not violated unless in
accordance with the law.
UK Data Protection Act 1998. Information must…
be fairly and lawfully processed
be processed for limited purposes and not in any manner
incompatible with those purposes
be adequate, relevant and not excessive
be accurate and where necessary, up to date
not be kept for longer than is necessary
be processed in accordance with individual rights
be stored securely
The widening security agenda
UK HMIC analysis points to a future policing
environment characterized by:
widespread enterprising organized criminality, proliferating
international terrorism and domestic extremism
a premium on intelligence, expertise and smart use of
an increasingly risk concerned public and intrusive media
HMIC. (2005). Closing the gap. London: Her Majesty's
Inspectorate of Constabulary.
GMAC integrates strategic meetings
Strategic harm model
Strategic harm models are not the same as models to
reduce fear of crime
Reassurance policing
Media scaremongering
Media-led policing?
Mike Maguire and Tim John described reassurance policing
as having a ‘populist’ or ‘consumerist’ focus
National security and ILP
Intelligence-led policing has become a policing
paradigm at the same time that national security
issues have expanded to become domestic priorities.
Terrorism has been linked to
Organized crime
Transnational crime
Information Sharing Environment
Work to better coordinate national security
information across the US is undertaken by the
Program Manager for the Information Sharing
Environment (in the Office of the Director of National
Intelligence) and the Information Sharing Council
Information Sharing Council
Program Manager for the
Information Sharing
Environment (Chair)
Central Intelligence Agency
Department of Commerce
Department of Defense
(Joint Chiefs of Staff)
Department of Defense
(Office of the Secretary of
Department of Energy
Department of Health and
Human Services
Department of State
Department of Homeland
10. Department of the Interior
11. Department of Justice
12. Department of
13. Department of the Treasury
14. Director of National
15. Federal Bureau of
16. National Counterterrorism
17. Office of Management of
Lack of executive training
Recognized as a national way forward, ILP is an allcrimes approach to enforcement that will
revolutionize law enforcement. ILP richly integrates
existing strategies and technologies into a coherent
‘game-plan’ approach in allocating resources
efficiently. Currently, without a national strategy, or a
place where police executives can learn how to
implement ILP, it is sitting on the shelf unused.
(Bratton 2007: 7–8)
The future?
Both police executives and analysts will have to
demonstrate leadership, ownership and
understanding of the tenets of intelligence-led
policing for it to succeed
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10 yardsticks for intelligence-led policing
Supportive and informed command structure
Intelligence-led policing is the heart of an organization-wide
Integrated crime and criminal analysis
Focus on prolific and serious offenders
Analytical and executive training available
Both strategic and tactical tasking meetings take place
Much routine investigation is screened out
Data are sufficiently complete, reliable and available to support
quality products that influence decision-making
Management structures exist to action intelligence products
Appropriate use of prevention, disruption and enforcement