History of Social Studies Education

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Transcript History of Social Studies Education

History of Social Studies
Social Education in the 18th
and 19th centuries
•Declaration of Independence
•US Constitution
•American Revolution
Noah Webster
What was the purpose of
education beyond grammar
Was the purpose of secondary
education to prepare students
for the university or to
prepare young people to take
their place in society?
Americanization Process
NEA Committee of Ten
7: American history and govt.
8: Greek and Roman History
9: French History
10: English History
11: American History
12: Optional studies in depth
History is the study of human character
… one object of historical study is the
acquirement of useful facts; but the
chief object is the training of the
judgment, in selecting the grounds of an
opinion, in accumulating materials for an
opinion, in putting things together, in
generalizing upon facts, in estimating
character, in applying the lessons of
history to current events, and in
accustoming children to state their
conclusions in their own words.
AHA Committee of Seven
• Grade 9: Ancient History (Greek
and Roman)
• Grade 10: Medieval and Modern
European History
• Grade 11: English History
• Grade 12: American History and
Evolutionary principles are not fixed and
immutable… science had the ability to
modify evolutionary principles through
human intervention
Charles Peirce
John Dewey
All is in constant flux…one must
continually identify and deal with these
new conditions or forces…
Free and unfettered inquiry…
William James
Fundamental idea … which is the idea
that action and opportunity justify
themselves only to the degree in which
they render life more reasonable and
increase its value … the unstable
character of American life and
civilization has facilitated the birth of a
philosophy which regards the world in
continuous formation, where there is still
room for indeterminism for the new and
for a real future.
John Dewey
Change and growth…
Social Studies
NEA Committee on Social
Studies (1916)
Social Studies =
Citizenship training
Grade 7: Geography
Grade 8: US History
Grade 9: Civics
Grade 10: European Hst
Grade 11: US History
Grade12: Problems of
American Democracy
“in actual life…we face
problems or conditions and not
sciences. We use sciences,
however, to interpret our
problems and conditions.
Furthermore, every problem or
condition has many sides and
may involve the use of various
NEA Committee 1916
Harold Rugg
Man and His Changing Society
Social reconstructionist = training students to
reform society
Woods Hole, Mass.
• Students can learn how to learn; massive
transfer of learning can be achieved
• The disciplines have distinctive “structures”
that students can learn, or discover, which
tie together discrete knowledge so that it can
be more effectively gained and retained.
• Mastery of the fundamental ideas of a field
involves not only general principles but the
development of an attitude towards learning;
that is, learning by “inquiry” or “discovery”
• Since intellectual inquiry is everywhere the
same, the “school-boy” can learn more easily
by behaving as a social scientist
• Any subject can be effectively taught in some
honest form to any child at any level.
The New Social Studies
Anthropology Curriculum Study Project
High School Geography Project
Sociological Resources for the Social Studies
Our Working World
Econ 12
Carnegie-Mellon History Inquiry Project
Man: A Course of Study (MACOS)
“Unified Social Science”
Lawrence Senesh
Alfred Kuhn
“General Systems Approach”
Kenneth Boulding
“What formal education must do is
to produce people who are fit to be
inhabitants of the planet. This has
become an urgent necessity because
for the first time in human history
we have reached the boundaries of
our planet and found that it is a
small one at that – the spaceship
Kenneth Boulding
1970s – 1980s
to the
“Pure and unfettered disciplines”
National Council for the
Social Studies
Three Scope and Sequences
Social Studies is the integrated study of the
social sciences and humanities to promote civic
competence. Within the school program, social
studies provides coordinated, systematic study
drawing upon such disciplines as anthropology,
archaeology, economics, geography, history,
law, philosophy, political science, psychology,
religion, and sociology, as well as appropriate
content from the humanities, mathematics, and
natural sciences. The primary purpose of
social studies is to help young people develop
the ability to make informed and reasoned
decisions for the public good as citizens of a
culturally diverse, democratic society in an
interdependent world.
Bradley Commission
• Themes to be taught:
Global interdependence
Multicultural society
Demographic change
Social science inclusive
National Council for
Geographic Education
• 5 themes
– Location
– Place
– Human-Environmental
– Movement
– Regions
1. All children will start school ready to
2. The high school graduation rate will
increase to at least 90%.
3. All students will become competent in
challenging subject matter.
4. Teachers will have the knowledge and
skills that they need.
5. U.S. students will be first in the world
in mathematics and science achievement.
6. Every adult American will be literate.
7. Schools will be safe, disciplined, and
free of guns, drugs, and alcohol.
8. Schools will promote parental involvement
and participation.
Diane Ravitch: “What do our 17
year olds know?”
• “In the eyes of the student typical history
classroom is one in which they listen to the
teacher explain the day’s lesson, use a textbook,
and take tests. Occasionally they watch a movie.
Sometimes they memorize information or read
stories about events and people. They seldom
work with other students, use original documents,
write term papers, or discuss the significance of
what they are studying.” (p.194)