Dennis Dillon UT -Austin
The Economy … and the collection If stupidity got us into this mess, then why can’t it get us out? -- Will Rogers
Users Vendors Consortia Faculty (via peer review) Librarian selectors
What % of Spend - Trend
• Customer Driven pay-per-view and e-book purchases • Automatic purchases of Inter-Library Loan requests Approval plans, aggregators (Ebsco, Lexis, ProQuest, etc.) Statewide contracts, consortia big deals (journal & ebook packages) increasing steady ???
Which articles in journals, proceedings, etc.
Some books, some journals, some databases increasing decreasing Collection Councils / Committees Administrative / Collection AUL Peer process for central funds steady - depends on library budget Major purchases, pilot programs, online content to save shelf space, etc.
varies by institution and budget conditions ... the steady decline in selector decision making
Traditional publishing under threat
Too many traditional publishers chasing too little traditional money
Old business models crumbling
Reading is declining among all age groups … and education levels… in every country surveyed.
Unproven new models still require revenue (institutional/corporate support, pay-per-view, advertising)
Academic book circulation
(underperforming assets) Among all academic libraries, printed books circulate once every 6.3 years … and have a 15.78% chance of circulating in any given year. (National Center for Education Statistics. Library Program. 2004 tables) Among ARL libraries, printed books on median, have an 8% chance of circulating in any given year (once every 12.5 years) from a high of 20% chance of circulating at Texas, to a low of 1.9% chance of circulating “back east”. (ARL Interactive statistics for 2006) ranging Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries reports that over the last 9 years between 30-67% of their books were never used .
ARL libraries spent $295 million dollars buying books in 2007.
Supply Side Collection Development
Libraries buy what is produced, not what is read or used.
selectors do it, collection AULs do it, consortia do it, approval plans & big deals are based on it, etc.
How much longer will the economy allow this to continue?
How much longer will customers allow this to continue?
Book parking spaces (shelf units)
Bigger buildings are not the answer
The Sacred Longhorns
• Selection matters • Collections matter • Ownership matters • Archiving and preservation matter …or maybe not
selection collection Stuff we never knew about Other viewpoints about what is worthwhile ownership Things outside our box(es) archiving Things we couldn’t afford
Stumbling forward (part1):
reduce costs, increase coverage, let the users pick the books
• UT has an unmediated, un-restricted, pay-per-view and customer-driven automatic purchase plan for ebooks.
• A year ago we linked this to the print approval plan, and stopped getting underperforming print publishers that were covered by the ebook pay-per-view plan.
• Several years ago we began buying the books that users requested via ILL i.e. a customer driven collection development for print.
• Next - customer driven print approval
25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 UT has 10+ years of usage data, by subject, for all our print and ebooks
We know which publishers are used and which aren’t
UT monographic subject universe (with stats) UT monographic publisher universe (with stats) Determine what works best as an ebook Determine what works best in print Establish ebook publishers & subjects profiles Establish print publishers & subjects profile Drop profile into appropriate acquisition slot Print firm orders Ebook firm orders or packages Customer Driven ebook PPV & Purchases Customer Driven Print purchases (via OPAC Records) Customer Driven ILL auto purchase Print approval
Goal = less title-by-title selection and more information management * make more use of data * increase coverage, reduce costs * only pay for a title when it is used * 50% of the selection done by users
But incrementally increasing the effectiveness of funds used for books is a minor change: Library customers still want more – and they want that more to be easy, quick, and painless.
Library funders still want to control costs
...a new business model
1. Put more content at users’ fingertips 2. Insure the continued survival of content providers (publishers, vendors, authors, etc.) 3. Transform publishers/libraries to meet the challenges of the network.
Pay when our users render content into existence Content producers and creators are then rewarded for content that is used Content that no one wants to distribute or to pay for … can then flow to the scholarly IR.
Demand Side Collecting
introduces some honesty into a distorted market where currently: - libraries continue to buy content that is not used, - and publishers continue to produce it, - and authors continue to create it, ...and there are minimal adverse consequences for any of the participants.
Demand side collecting
: -rewards publishers who respond to needs - is more user –centered.
-frees up funds that currently go for purchase of unread tenure by-products Put links in OPAC/Worldcat Local etc. and library pays every time a user views it on their iPhone, creates an order for print copy, downloads it to their laptop, or renders it into existence in any way.
(not just libraries)
• Economics • Business models • Network Trust • Change of roles
Successful networks depend on linkages, trust, shared understandings, back-up plans, & network-based cooperation i.e. a tightly integrated business model.
Information distribution tomorrow Information distribution today
• The more people that use a network – the better it works.
• Networks remove boundaries & obstacles • A network model: pay for what you use (water, electricity, ATMs, pay-as-you go phones, iTunes, etc.)
Triangle of denial
Sacred Longhorns Supply side values & practices Staying on the same path, and expecting different results Barriers, boxes, boundaries
There are other options
other options besides libraries If everything seems under control, you’re not going fast enough.
Triangle of hope
Intellectual honesty User centered digital faucet Maximize access to information by all means possible Stay grounded
Panic It’s all going to change
Step 1 - survive Step 2 - stay relevant, let users select Step 3 - transform economics of higher ed publishing