Transcript Importance of Control Function on Management
Importance of Control Function on Management
Dr. Bagus Nurcahyo Program Studi Manajemen Pemasaran Direktorat Program D3 Bisnis & Kewirausahaan BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 1
Importance of Control
• Critical link back to planning – No control often sidetracks a good plan • Facilitates goal achievement – Are objectives being met?
– If not,
• Makes delegation easier/better – Provides feedback on performance of delegated authority • • Opportunity for delegation over-ride
Trust, but verify
portion of management BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 2
Three Basic Types of Control
• Feedforward Control – Prevents “anticipated” problems – Built in at the start (or before) • Concurrent Control – Occurs while activity in progress – Ensures standards being met; Correct before they become too costly – Often built into new technology • Feedback Control – Control after action has occurred – Good feedback on effectiveness of planning – Most popular
• Developed from inborn tendencies and our environment – Nature AND Nurture • Six traits impact interpersonal relations and job performance: – Extroversion – Agreeableness – Conscientiousness – Emotional Stability (Neuroticism) – Openness to Experience – Self Monitoring of Behavior- How we are seen BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 4
Personality Types - Background
• Everyone has a preferred mode of operation within the four categories: – Where we get our energy for life • Extroverted or Introverted – How we see reality (Take in information) • Sensing or iNtuition – How we judge that reality (Make decisions) • Thinking or Feeling – Our orientation with world on day-to-day basis • Judging or Perceiving BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 5
Extraversion vs. Introversion
• Extroverts (E) - energy from external sources – People and things – Think out loud – Empowered by others; Sense of connectedness • Introverts (I) - energy from internal world – Ideas and concepts – Wait to speak until ideas fully formulated – Spatiality • “What” is said, not how much BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 6
• Sensation (S) type individuals – Prefer routine and order – Search for concrete details (Specific and exact) – Prefer to work with established facts • Intuitive (N) type individuals – Overall perspective – “Big Picture” • Generalities and approximations – Rely on intuition – Dislike routine – Look for abstract possibilities from info gathered BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 7
• Feeling (F) type individuals: – Based on personal, subjective value systems – Act on what they believe to be right – May adapt to others’ wishes (Approval) or avoid issues that may cause disagreement • Thinking (T) type individuals: – Rely on logic and objective considerations – Downplay emotion in problem solving and decision-making – Logical, rational, impartial BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 8
Judging vs. Perceiving
• Judging (J) – More comfortable with scheduled, structured environment – Neat, orderly, and settled – Organized and purposeful • Perceiving (P) – More comfortable with open, casual environment – Flexible and diverse 9
The Paul Principle
• Gradual obsolescence of leaders as they lose touch w/organization they lead – Become too conservative (Risk-averse) – Resist innovation and change (Stagnation) – Fail to take advantage of technological breakthroughs (Comfortable) – Find answers for problems from their youth • Can’t teach an old dog new tricks • Antidotes? BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 10
• Webster’s: – “A mental image” – “Physical sensation interpreted in the light of experience” – “Process people use to make sense of their environment” • XO says: – A
that can affect the way in which we process information – Frequently leads to an incorrect deduction BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 11
• Plays a powerful role in relationships with superiors, peers, and subordinates • You will be judged and often judge others on the perception of intentions and effectiveness • Normally based on: – Limited observation – Incomplete information BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 12
Aspects of Perception
• Fundamental Attribution Error: – Tendency to overestimate the dispositional causes of behavior and downplay the environmental factors in others behavior • Self-Serving Bias: – Blame external attributions for failure (environment/situation) – Internal attributions (Intelligence/charisma) responsible for success BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 13
Aspects of Perception
• Actor/Observer Difference: – People error
an action are much more likely than the actor to make the fundamental attribution • Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: – Expectations or predictions play a causal role in bringing about the events we predict (Forced Eventuality/Scenario Fulfillment) BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 14
• Messages sent through actions and behaviors rather than words – Not “what you say, but how you say it” • 75-90% of our info is from non-verbal communication • Message behind the message? (Emotion) – Physical appearance – Facial expressions/Eye contact – Body language • Aggressive, defensive, disconnected, relaxed – Proxemics BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 15
• How important is it?
– 93% of emotional impact • Message breakdown – Verbal (Spoken words) – Vocal (Pitch, tone, timbre) – Body Language 10% 30% 60%
What happens when words and actions contradict?
Using Non-verbal Advantageously
• Become aware • Don’t contradict words w/body language • Know facial expressions – Benefits of smile/head nod – Direct your eye contact • Gesturing with purpose • Note personal/cultural differences BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 17
• Environmental – External – noise/other stimuli – Internal – stress/exhaustion/personal issues • Physiological – Speaking vs. Thinking Rate – Ailment – loss of hearing/flu BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 18
(CONT) • Psychological – Selective Listening – Negative Listening Attitudes – Personal Reactions • Words have meanings • Buzz words – Poor Motivation • Lack of preparation • Goals help you focus BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 19
Communication & the Four Management Functions
• Planning: – Gather information – Write memos, letters, reports – Meet to formulate plans • Organizing: – Gather info about state of organization – Communicate new structure • Directing: – Communicate plan and strategy
(How and Why)
– Motivate employees • Controlling: – Feedback; “How are we doing?” BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 20
• Stand up for your rights in a way that recognizes the rights of others to do the same.
• Differs from two other means of dealing with conflict: – Acquiescence – Back down easily when challenged – Aggression – Achieve aims by attacking or hurting others.
Assertiveness achieves aims by direct communication in an open, fair and positive manner.
• Take responsibility for what you say and do.
• Be clear about what you want.
• Speak up for what you need.
• Learn to say no.
• Exhibit positive inner dialogue.
• Be persistent.
• Feedback should be helpful. (Positive or negative) • Be specific. Focus on behaviors.
• Be descriptive. Stick to the facts.
• Be timely. • Be flexible. May have to wait for a better time to give the feedback.
• Give both positive and negative feedback.
• Avoid blame and embarrassment.
• What is moral leadership?
– Distinguishing right from wrong AND doing what’s right • Having the courage to take an unpopular stand – Placing others/organization ahead of oneself • Why important?
– People want honest and trustworthy leaders – All leaders face ethical dilemmas BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 24
Levels of Moral Development
Individuals seek external rewards Obey authority to avoid consequences Motivated solely by self interest Take what you can get Leadership tends to be autocratic toward others; Aimed at personal advancement
People conform to behavioral expectations of group Rules, norms, and values of the group are followed If honesty is the rule, people will be honest If dishonesty is the rule, people will be dishonest
Leaders guided by internalized set of principles (Universal right or wrong) Leaders may disobey rules/laws that violate universal principles Internalized values more important that others’ expectations BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 25
• Direct and
• Efficiency and Stability paramount – Power, purpose, and privilege reside with top management subordinates – Emphasizes tight top-down control, standardization, and specialization • Followers given a routine and controlled along with machines and materials • Management by impersonal measurement and analysis BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 26
• Encourages participation and suggestions • Uses teamwork, but mindset remains paternalistic: – Top leaders determine purpose/goals, make final decisions, and decide rewards – Leaders still responsible for outcome – No real distribution of power and authority BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 27
– Control over how they do their jobs – Localize decisions/power to those closest to work – Tap into energy and commitment of followers • Leaders accountable to others as well as to the organization • Partnership assumption to make decisions –Joint responsibility/accountability • Facilitate vice control followers. Guide without dominating.
• Recognize and reward the value of labor – rewards tied to success of the organization BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 28
• Transcend self-interest to: – Serve the needs of others – Help others grow and develop – Provide opportunities for others to gain • Belief – making others better makes the whole organization/group better BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 29