Importance of Control Function on Management

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Transcript Importance of Control Function on Management

Importance of Control Function on Management

Dr. Bagus Nurcahyo Program Studi Manajemen Pemasaran Direktorat Program D3 Bisnis & Kewirausahaan BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 1

Importance of Control

• Critical link back to planning – No control often sidetracks a good plan • Facilitates goal achievement – Are objectives being met?

– If not,



• Makes delegation easier/better – Provides feedback on performance of delegated authority • • Opportunity for delegation over-ride

Trust, but verify

portion of management BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 2

Three Basic Types of Control

• Feedforward Control – Prevents “anticipated” problems – Built in at the start (or before) • Concurrent Control – Occurs while activity in progress – Ensures standards being met; Correct before they become too costly – Often built into new technology • Feedback Control – Control after action has occurred – Good feedback on effectiveness of planning – Most popular


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Personality Traits

• Developed from inborn tendencies and our environment – Nature AND Nurture • Six traits impact interpersonal relations and job performance: – Extroversion – Agreeableness – Conscientiousness – Emotional Stability (Neuroticism) – Openness to Experience – Self Monitoring of Behavior- How we are seen BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 4

Personality Types - Background

• Everyone has a preferred mode of operation within the four categories: – Where we get our energy for life • Extroverted or Introverted – How we see reality (Take in information) • Sensing or iNtuition – How we judge that reality (Make decisions) • Thinking or Feeling – Our orientation with world on day-to-day basis • Judging or Perceiving BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 5

Extraversion vs. Introversion

Extroverts (E) - energy from external sources – People and things – Think out loud – Empowered by others; Sense of connectedness • Introverts (I) - energy from internal world – Ideas and concepts – Wait to speak until ideas fully formulated – Spatiality • “What” is said, not how much BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 6

Gathering Information

Sensation (S) type individuals – Prefer routine and order – Search for concrete details (Specific and exact) – Prefer to work with established facts • Intuitive (N) type individuals – Overall perspective – “Big Picture” • Generalities and approximations – Rely on intuition – Dislike routine – Look for abstract possibilities from info gathered BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 7

Evaluating Information

Feeling (F) type individuals: – Based on personal, subjective value systems – Act on what they believe to be right – May adapt to others’ wishes (Approval) or avoid issues that may cause disagreement • Thinking (T) type individuals: – Rely on logic and objective considerations – Downplay emotion in problem solving and decision-making – Logical, rational, impartial BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 8

Judging vs. Perceiving

Judging (J) – More comfortable with scheduled, structured environment – Neat, orderly, and settled – Organized and purposeful • Perceiving (P) – More comfortable with open, casual environment – Flexible and diverse 9

The Paul Principle

• Gradual obsolescence of leaders as they lose touch w/organization they lead – Become too conservative (Risk-averse) – Resist innovation and change (Stagnation) – Fail to take advantage of technological breakthroughs (Comfortable) – Find answers for problems from their youth • Can’t teach an old dog new tricks • Antidotes? BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 10


• Webster’s: – “A mental image” – “Physical sensation interpreted in the light of experience” – “Process people use to make sense of their environment” • XO says: – A


that can affect the way in which we process information – Frequently leads to an incorrect deduction BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 11

Why Important?

• Plays a powerful role in relationships with superiors, peers, and subordinates • You will be judged and often judge others on the perception of intentions and effectiveness • Normally based on: – Limited observation – Incomplete information BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 12

Aspects of Perception

• Fundamental Attribution Error: – Tendency to overestimate the dispositional causes of behavior and downplay the environmental factors in others behavior • Self-Serving Bias: – Blame external attributions for failure (environment/situation) – Internal attributions (Intelligence/charisma) responsible for success BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 13

Aspects of Perception

• Actor/Observer Difference: – People error


an action are much more likely than the actor to make the fundamental attribution • Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: – Expectations or predictions play a causal role in bringing about the events we predict (Forced Eventuality/Scenario Fulfillment) BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 14

Non-Verbal Communication

• Messages sent through actions and behaviors rather than words – Not “what you say, but how you say it” • 75-90% of our info is from non-verbal communication • Message behind the message? (Emotion) – Physical appearance – Facial expressions/Eye contact – Body language • Aggressive, defensive, disconnected, relaxed – Proxemics BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 15

Non-Verbal Communication

• How important is it?

– 93% of emotional impact • Message breakdown – Verbal (Spoken words) – Vocal (Pitch, tone, timbre) – Body Language 10% 30% 60%

What happens when words and actions contradict?

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Using Non-verbal Advantageously

• Become aware • Don’t contradict words w/body language • Know facial expressions – Benefits of smile/head nod – Direct your eye contact • Gesturing with purpose • Note personal/cultural differences BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 17

Listening Barriers

• Environmental – External – noise/other stimuli – Internal – stress/exhaustion/personal issues • Physiological – Speaking vs. Thinking Rate – Ailment – loss of hearing/flu BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 18

Listening Barriers

(CONT) • Psychological – Selective Listening – Negative Listening Attitudes – Personal Reactions • Words have meanings • Buzz words – Poor Motivation • Lack of preparation • Goals help you focus BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 19

Communication & the Four Management Functions

• Planning: – Gather information – Write memos, letters, reports – Meet to formulate plans • Organizing: – Gather info about state of organization – Communicate new structure • Directing: – Communicate plan and strategy

(How and Why)

– Motivate employees • Controlling: – Feedback; “How are we doing?” BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 20


• Stand up for your rights in a way that recognizes the rights of others to do the same.

• Differs from two other means of dealing with conflict: – Acquiescence – Back down easily when challenged – Aggression – Achieve aims by attacking or hurting others.

Assertiveness achieves aims by direct communication in an open, fair and positive manner.

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• Take responsibility for what you say and do.

• Be clear about what you want.

• Speak up for what you need.

• Learn to say no.

• Exhibit positive inner dialogue.

• Be persistent.

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Constructive Feedback

• Feedback should be helpful. (Positive or negative) • Be specific. Focus on behaviors.

• Be descriptive. Stick to the facts.

• Be timely. • Be flexible. May have to wait for a better time to give the feedback.

• Give both positive and negative feedback.

• Avoid blame and embarrassment.

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Moral Leadership

• What is moral leadership?

– Distinguishing right from wrong AND doing what’s right • Having the courage to take an unpopular stand – Placing others/organization ahead of oneself • Why important?

– People want honest and trustworthy leaders – All leaders face ethical dilemmas BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 24

Levels of Moral Development

Pre-conventional Level

Individuals seek external rewards  Obey authority to avoid consequences Motivated solely by self interest  Take what you can get Leadership tends to be autocratic toward others; Aimed at personal advancement

Conventional Level

People conform to behavioral expectations of group Rules, norms, and values of the group are followed  If honesty is the rule, people will be honest  If dishonesty is the rule, people will be dishonest

Principled Level

Leaders guided by internalized set of principles (Universal right or wrong) Leaders may disobey rules/laws that violate universal principles  Internalized values more important that others’ expectations BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 25

Authoritarian Management

• Direct and


• Efficiency and Stability paramount – Power, purpose, and privilege reside with top management subordinates – Emphasizes tight top-down control, standardization, and specialization • Followers given a routine and controlled along with machines and materials • Management by impersonal measurement and analysis BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 26

Participative Management

• Encourages participation and suggestions • Uses teamwork, but mindset remains paternalistic: – Top leaders determine purpose/goals, make final decisions, and decide rewards – Leaders still responsible for outcome – No real distribution of power and authority BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 27


• Employees


– Control over how they do their jobs – Localize decisions/power to those closest to work – Tap into energy and commitment of followers • Leaders accountable to others as well as to the organization • Partnership assumption to make decisions –Joint responsibility/accountability • Facilitate vice control followers. Guide without dominating.

• Recognize and reward the value of labor – rewards tied to success of the organization BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 28

Servant Leadership

• Transcend self-interest to: – Serve the needs of others – Help others grow and develop – Provide opportunities for others to gain • Belief – making others better makes the whole organization/group better BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 29