Transcript Executive Briefing
This briefing is designed as a stand alone briefing for Airline Senior Executives / CEOs.
Minor text amendments following review at Cario CAAG meeting.
DJG 30 Mar 2002
The Balance of Risk
Business depends on the balance of risks, often accomplished by the fine judgement of financial strategy.
But have you considered the financial consequences from poorly judged flight safety strategy ?
Could your operation survive an Approach and Landing Accident; would it change the financial balance ?
Could it happen to you ?
Page Down or ENTER to continue
This briefing examines the need for management attention to the flight safety aspects of approach and landing accidents (ALA).
Controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) together with ALA account for the highest number of fatalities and aircraft hull losses respectively.
The Flight Safety Foundation has produced a training aid – the Approach and Landing Accident Reduction Tool Kit. All pilots should be aware of the contents of this safety aid.
Awareness of the risks and provision of training to combat the threat are the primary management tools in risk reduction.
What can you do ?
• Fit a Terrain Awareness System (TAWS) to all aircraft.
> TAWS will be the mandatory fit for all aircraft in 2005. However there will be at least 5 approach accidents or CFIT in each year before then. Fitting TAWS immediately will give insurance against an Approach and Landing Accident.
• Adopt the advice and procedures from the ALAR Tool Kit as your company policy.
> Adherence to procedures is another safety tool; but first you need to publish procedures .
• Ensure that CFIT and ALAR training is available and given.
> An audit checks that procedures are in place; an inspection ensures that procedures are being followed.
• TAWS is the latest generation of safety awareness avionics. Most systems use an extensive terrain database against which the aircraft position and altitude is compared. If an aircraft exceeds predetermined limits the crew are given both audio and visual warnings.
Fitting TAWS to all of your aircraft may appear to be expensive.
How much will an accident cost?
Advice and Procedures
• Simple rules and procedures can give protection against accidents.
Require that all approaches use precision or precision like approach aids. Fly the final approach with a stabilised flight path.
If the approach to land is not going as anticipated then require the crew to go around. It is better financial judgement to have a safe arrival before an on time arrival.
Promote the safety concept that it is OK to go around.
Standard Operating Procedures
• Where a task is conducted safely write it down for others to follow; this is the basis of producing Standard Operating Procedures - SOPs.
SOPs can reduce risks during flight operations.
They must be the basis of training and checking. They enhance crew co-ordination and communication. Where both pilots are aware of the company limits, the monitoring pilot knows when and how to alert the operating pilot, this enables optimum cockpit resource management.
Give an Approach Briefing
• The crew are expected to brief the passengers before arrival; ensure that the crew brief themselves about the expected approach, the airfield, the weather or terrain hazards.
An approach briefing gives the crew a common understanding of how the approach and landing is expected to progress
Use the Radio Altimeter
• Radio Altimeters are valuable awareness tools.
Approach procedures are constructed such that adequate terrain clearance is provided during the approach and landing. Ensure that the crew call when the instrument first indicates. Always call 1000ft and 500ft above terrain; if these calls come at an unexpected time the crew should be aware of an error.
It could be someone else’s error
• 85% of aircraft accidents are due to human error, but human error is manageable. Multiple crew members are employed to give redundancy and cross check each other; ensure that they are trained for their tasks.
• Poor judgement or lack of decision making are often circumstantial causes of accidents. These mental attributes such as thinking are skills thus can be taught and improved by practice. All skills can be trained and improved.
When TAWS or GPWS gives the alert “Pull Up” then Pull Up.
Audits and Inspection
• In the same way as you would audit financial performance then audit the operational performance, the policies, procedures and practice.
Use management tools such as FOQA or LOSA.
FOQA – Flight Operations Quality Assurance is a process of routinely monitoring aircraft data for abnormal operation. This tells you what is happening in your airline.
LOSA – Line Operations Safety Assessment is a human overview of the operation, the procedures, and the people.
This tells you why things are happening in your airline.
The Cost of an Accident ?
11 Killed Damaged reputation Airline ceased operations Aircraft written off
Use the FSF ALAR Tool Kit Use the ALAR Tool Kit to balance the risks; ensure that an approach and landing accident does not happen to you.
The ALAR Tool Kit is available on CD-ROM from the
Flight Safety Foundation
Suite 300, 601 Madison Street, Alexandria, VA 22314-1756 U.S.
Telephone: +1 (703) 739-6700 Fax: +1 (703) 739-6708 www.flightsafety.org