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EARTH’S SYSTEMS & RESOURCES AP EXAM REVIEW QUESTIONS Answer the following questions on a sheet of paper. Check your answers by the final slide.

1. Tectonic plate boundaries are an important component of geologic activity because a. plate movement affects wave motion & tides.

b. minerals form at the boundaries.

c. earthquakes, volcanoes, & formation of mountain ranges occur here.

d. gases are released here.

e. weather is affected by the activity at the plate boundaries.

Questions 2 – 4 refer to the following answer choices.

A. sulfur dioxide B. carbon dioxide C. hydrogen fluoride D. carbon monoxide E. hydrogen chloride 2. an atmospheric gas that can cause acid rain and increase the rate of ozone depletion 3. an atmospheric gas that may cause bone deterioration, poisoning of animals, and acid rain 4. an atmospheric gas that replaces breathable air and can lead to asphyxiation

5. On Earth, summer occurs when a. the earth is closest to the sun.

b. the sun’s rays are at the steepest angle on the Earth.

c. the sun’s rays are at their most direct angle to Earth.

d. the Earth is farthest from the sun.

e. the vernal equinox occurs

6. Which is NOT a component of the water cycle?

a. Water is stored in sinks, including ice caps, oceans, rivers, and lakes.

b. The sun is a key component and acts as a power source for the water cycle.

c. The movement of nutrients is largely dependent upon the water cycle.

d. Water vapor is considered an atmospheric gas.

e. Most water is held in freshwater sources, such as rivers and lakes.

7. Which of the following has an effect on surface currents?

I. water temperature II. Coriolis effect III. winds IV. dissolved oxygen V. location of continents a. I and II only b. I, II, and III only c. I, II, III, and IV only d. IV and V only e. none of the above

Questions 8-10 refer to the figure & answer choices.

A. O horizon layer B. A horizon layer C. E horizon layer D. B horizon layer E. R horizon layer 8. Which soil profile horizon contains most nutrients for plant growth?

9. Which soil profile horizon is considered the subsoil?

10. Which soil profile horizon is the parent material?

11. Which of the following is NOT an effect of El Nino?

a. A loss of nutrients in the affected ocean waters.

b. A warming of the waters of the western coast of South America.

c. Dryer conditions in the eastern United States, Peru, & Ecuador.

d. A cooling cycle known as La Nina.

e. Dryer conditions in the Philippines, Indonesia, & Australia.

12. Which layer of the atmosphere has most of the mass & is the layer where weather occurs?

a. troposphere b. stratosphere c. mesosphere d. thermosphere e. exosphere

13. How does sea floor spreading create new land?

a. Volcanoes erupt.

b. Magma pushes through the Earth’s crust at the mid-ocean ridge & hardens.

c. Plates continually move, disrupting the magma.

d. Oceanic plates are subducted at plate boundaries.

e. Heated ocean water rises & sinks at the mid-ocean ridge.

14. In which way do volcanic gases NOT temporarily affect the atmosphere?

a. Ozone is broken down when reactions occur with HCl or SO global temperature.

2 .

b. Gases ultimately lower the mean c. Acid rain is reduced.

d. The temperature of the planet increases over time.

e. Smog is created regionally.

15. Three convection currents impact atmospheric circulation: the Ferrel, Hadley, & polar air circulation cells. Which of the following is NOT true of these convection cells?

a. The polar air circulation cells are characterized by two major biomes, tundra, & taiga.

b. Both the Hadley & polar circulation cells influence the Ferrel air circulation cells.

c. Two distinct regions water evaporation – the equatorial region of high humidity & heavy rain & the subtropical region of low humidity, few clouds, & high – characterize the Hadley air circulation.

d. The three types of convection cells occur only in the northern hemisphere.

e. Ferrel circulation cells are defined by the four traditional seasons – spring, summer, fall, & winter.

1. C 2. A 3. C 4. B 5. C 6. E 7. B 8. B


9. D 10. E 11. C 12. A 13. B 14. C 15. D