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Constitutional Convention &
The Great Compromise
Mr. Cales
Chapter 4 , Section 3
Articles of Confederation Need Work!
• Constitutional Convention held in May
• Meeting was meant to improve or
change the Articles of Confederation.
• George Washington was elected
President of Constitutional Convention.
• Some wanted a strong central
government, and some did not (Patrick
Henry--Sons of Liberty).
Independence Hall – Philadelphia, PA
Inside Independence Hall
Definition of Compromise
• an agreement reached after both sides
give something up in order to get the
most of what they really want
Virginia Plan
• Virginia thought that states with large
populations should have the most
power. The larger the population, the
more representation in government!
(More populated states should have
greater representation in government)
(Representatives work to make laws)
New Jersey Plan
• Thought that the legislature should
have one house with two
representatives no matter the
(Each state should have equal
representation. No state should have
more power than another based on
• Create a TWO House Legislature:
• The House of Representatives would have
representatives based on Population (435 today)
• The Senate would have equal representation for
all states. Each state will have two Senators
(100 total for the U.S. Today)
• This agreement tried to satisfy the big and small
Roger Sherman – The Great
3/5ths Compromise – Counting
• Big Question between North & South
• South – We want to count our slaves in
order to have as many representatives as
• North – No way – They are not citizens!
• Compromise: You can count 60% of your
slaves, or 3/5ths of the slave population
will count towards representation.
How does this look?
• For Example in South Carolina
• 5,000,000 people that are not slaves
• 4,000,000 people that are slaves
• 4,000,000 x 60% = 2,400,000
• South Carolina Population = 7,400,000
Slavery in the Constitution?
• They would end slave trade in 20 years.
This compromise was reached because the
Southern states demanded that they needed
slavery for their economy.
• Most believed that this should be a State
issue and let the states decide.
• There is NO mention of slavery in the
Constitution--”free persons” “all other
Key Terms:
• Popular Sovereignty – The idea that
political authority belongs to the
• Federalism – The sharing of power
between a central government and the
states that make up a country.
Branches of Government – Intro
• Legislative Branch – (Congress) –
Makes the laws.
• Executive Branch –(President) –
Enforces the laws.
• Judicial Branch – (Federal Courts) –
Interprets or reviews the laws for
A New Constitution!
• Draft was completed in September 1787.
• Only 3 of the 42 delegates refused to sign
the Constitution. (It did not include
protections of personal freedoms)
• Not a perfect document, but protected the
ideas of republicanism.
• James Madison is considered the father of
the Constitution.
James Madison – Main Author of
Analyzing Primary Source Images
• Write down everything you think is
important in the photograph?
• What does it reveal about its subject?
• What is the setting for the photograph?
• What other details are important?
• When where was the picture taken?
• How can I describe the photographer’s
point of view?
Primary Source #1
Primary Source Image #2