The New Nation

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Transcript The New Nation

The Constitutional Convention was a large meeting held in Philadelphia , Pennsylvania at Independence Hall from May of 1787 to Sept. to 1787 where 55 delegates representing their states.

They came to revise, change or throw out the AOC and write a new Constitution.


of the Constitutional Convention how to create a government that did not resemble King George was but create a govt. that was powerful enough

to tax

regulate trade

protect private property

enforce its laws

without taking away the were fought for in the American Revolution?

rights that

Constitutional Convention •

Many Representatives (delegates) believed the AOC was too weak to solve the problems of the US and “ mobocracy ”.

The decision was scrap the AOC and start over.

“Framers” Representatives who wrote the Constitution.

President of Convention George Washington

Father Figure Ben Franklin

Father of Constitution James Madison


“The writing of the Constitution formed a task more difficult than can be well conceived by those who were not concerned in the execution of it. Adding to the difficulty the natural diversity of human opinions on all new and complicated subjects, it is impossible to consider the degree of concord which ultimately prevailed as less than a miracle.”

Father of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights

Believed in a strong central government

Wrote part of The Federalist

Would become our 4 th president





“Snapshot of a“Framer”

White Male Adults Landowners Some education Some were slave owners Lawyers Merchants

Who wasn’t invited to the Convention

Women Slaves and Native Americans Poor

First major argument between the delegates was over how many representatives Congress.

each state would have in

What type of Congress should we have?

Large states (Massachusetts and Virginia) believed the more population, the more representatives in Congress.

Small states (New Jersey and Connecticut) believed each state should have equal representation.

Issues of representative government would be argued at Constitutional Convention • Virginia Plan proposed by the larger states • New Jersey plan proposed by small states – Establish a national government with 3 branches.

– Establish a bicameral Congress.

• People elect 1 house • That house elects 2 nd house – Representation in both houses based on state population – Establish a unicameral Congress • Each state to have 1 vote • Equal representation – States equally represented similar to the Articles of Confederation

Vir vs NJ

Conn. Comp •

Great Compromise or Connecticut Compromise

New Jersey Plan

Virginia Plan

People to elect their representatives.

2 houses of Congress


Elected by the people

Representatives based on population per state…..

More population the more representatives you have

2 year term

Satisfied larger states SENATE

Elected by each state’s congress

Equal representatives

2 representatives per state

6 year term

Satisfied smaller states

2nd major argument between the delegates was how to create an executive (president) which didn’t resemble King George III

How would he/she be chosen?

Created an Electoral College

Placed a “ check and balance ” on the people’s vote but tried to keep “ representative democracy ” in principle.

Historical Background

1. Why was the Electoral College created by the Framers?

Created as an alternative to either popular election or Congress electing the President.

Each state chose


---based on the number of representatives each state has in Congress.

2. Electoral vote was state to state = One vote per candidate.

Electors vote with the


of the people from the state they represented……….

but not required.

Candidate with the most votes became President; runner-up became Vice President.

3. In case of a tie, the House of Representatives elected the President.

electoral college

3 rd major argument between the delegates was how to limit the power of government .

But, give it enough power to be effective.

Created a system of government

Separated the powers of government into 3 branches that are co-equal but independent from one another.

To make sure one branch didn’t become to powerful they created a system of checks and balances.

3 branches

Legislative Branch •Congress (Art. 1) •Makes the law Executive Branch •President (Art. 2) •Carries out the law Judicial Branch •Supreme Court (Art. 3) •Interprets the law 3 Branches are separate, have different powers, co equal and checks and balances on one another to make sure one branch does not get to powerful

4 th major argument between the delegates was over slavery.

Southern states wanted their slaves to be counted as part of their population because it would give them more representation in Congress.

Northern states wanted to abolish slavery..

Southern States Convention if there was an attempt to abolish slavery.

would have left the Constitutional North and South worked out 2 compromises.

Southern states wanted their slaves to be counted as part of the total population of their state.


This would give them more representatives in Congress.

Thus giving them more voting power in Congress and protecting their self-interest of slavery.

Northern states objected to the South’s proposal and would only agree to compromise.

3 of every 5 slaves would be counted as part of a state’s total population.

It was supported by both North and South

Georgia’s Population

White = 300,000 Slaves = 100,000 3/5’s of 100,000 3/5’s of 100,000 = 60,000 300,000 + 60,000 = Total Population = 360,000 which would be counted towards representation in Congress.

Northern states agreed to the 3/5’s Compromise only if the South abolished the

Slave Trade

by 1807……

Agreement was made….North was hoping slavery would eventually fade away and die out .

This was their step towards abolishing slavery.

• Law created at the Constitutional Convention in 1787.

• Escaped slaves captured had to be returned to their plantation owner.

• Not enforced in North and led to the creation of the Underground Railroad .

• Southerners would become bitter and ultimately left the US.

Fifth major argument between the delegates was how to solve the problem over the states having more power than the national government.

Framers created a Federal Government

Divided the powers of government on a geographic basis.

They created 3 levels of government.

National, state and local

Art. 5, 6, 7


A strong national govt over the states was needed to protect “life, liberty, property and the pursuit of happiness”

Constitution was a “sound” document which “limited” the power of the national govt.

Gave it power to settle problems within the country.

Representative democracy constitution was built on and stated in the Preamble, is what the We the People .

Appealed to more the wealthy, business owners and educated.

George Washington

Ben Franklin,

John Adams,

James Madison

Alexander Hamilton


The Federalist Papers

The Federalist Papers

were a series of 85 essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay which supported the Constitution and convinced Americans that a stronger national government was needed.

Supported the Constitution and a strong central government

Art. 5, 6, 7


The national govt was too powerful and it would take away your right to happiness” “life, liberty, property and the pursuit of

The constitution was a threat to the “rights” we fought for in the Revolution

States” should have more authority than the national govt.

Feared representative democracy threatened because our rights were not protected.


Appealed to the common man, farmers and less educated

Patrick Henry

Thomas Jefferson

Sam Adams






FREEDOM of Religion, Press, Speech, Assembly, Petition RIGHT TO KEEP AND BEAR ARMS No QUARTERING of soldiers in peacetime NO UNREASONABLE SEARCH and SEIZURE PROTECTION of ACCUSED

Bill of rights


10 Amendments

to the Constitution in 1791 Rights and freedoms won in the Revolution are preserved and protected… 6.






In order for the new the land”, states had to


Constitution to become the “law of 9 of 13 ratify the Constitution.









Delaware Pennsylvania 46 – 23 New Jersey 38 – 0 Georgia Maryland 30 – 0 26 – 0 Connecticut 128 – 40 Massachusetts 187–168 63 – 11 South Carolina 149 – 73 9.

New Hampshire 57 – 47 10. Virginia 89 – 79 11. New York 30 – 27 12. North Carolina 194 – 77 13. Rhode Island 34 - 22

Wash inaugural •

New Constitution and Government take effect on April 30, 1789.

Washington begins his presidency in New York City and alternates between there and Philadelphia.

People wondered now: How would a democracy actually look like?

Three theories of what people believed democracy would end up becoming:

1) Pluralist Theory – A theory of government and policies emphasizing that politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies.

• Groups will work together • Public interest will prevail

Theories of U.S. Democracy

2) Elite and Class Theory – A theory of government and politics contending that societies are divided along class lines and that an upper-class elite will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organization.

• Not all groups are equal • Policies benefit those with money / power

Theories of U.S. Democracy

3) Hyperpluralism / Hyperpluralist – A theory of government and politics contending that groups are so strong that government is weakened.

• There are too many ways for groups to control policy.

• Confusing / contradictory policies