Transcript Emotion

• Emotion – basic
– Physiological arousal
– Expressive behaviors
– Consciously expressed
4Theories of Emotion
• James-Lange Theory
• Cannon-Bard Theory
• Two-Factor Theory
• Opponent-Process
James-Lange Theory
• Emotions are experienced in the following
an emotional stimulus is presented, causing
one to experience
, which are then
as an
• Presumes:
• Problem: some emotions have same
physiological changes
• Examples:
– “When you feel your heart pound and you
start to sweat, you get really scared”
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
occur at the
• Emotional stimulus is
simultaneously routed to
(awareness of emotion)and
system (body
• Example:
Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
AKA Schachter-Singer Theory
Cognitive Label
“I’m Afraid”
• Experience of emotion depends on two
and the
of that arousal.
• The label people give an emotion depends
on what they find in their environment.
• Arousal without a label is not an emotion;
a label without arousal does not lead to
emotional behavior.
• Experiments
• Example:
– See Jason
Spill Over Effect
• Spill over effect- emotional arousal
from one event spills over into our
response of the next event
– Supports
» -stirred up state can be experienced
as one emotion or another very
different one depending on how we
interpret or label it
– Example:
Theories of emotions
Opponent Process Theory
Richard Solomon
Pleasure Pain
• Emotions disrupt homeostasis…opposing
emotion enables a return to homeostasis
• Example:
Theories of Emotion Practice
• Paul encounters a growling wild animal, and
feels a faster heartbeat, widening eyes, and a
physical urge to flee.
• Monica is smiling and laughing and wants to
hug Mrs. Joseph because she just received a
5 on her AP Psych Exam.
• Zak just received a 1 on his AP Psych Exam
(because he has Mr. Jeter…just kidding Mr.
Jeter) and feels a pounding in his chest,
perspiration runs down his face and he has an
urge to hit someone.
• Use each of the theories of emotion to
explain Paul, Monica and Zak’s emotions
Emotions and the Autonomic
Nervous System
• Autonomic nervous system –
regulates physiological
of emotion
– Sympathetic nervous system
• Arousing
– Parasympathetic nervous system
• Calming
Arousal and Performance
– Moderate arousal is ideal
– Higher on
Emotions and the Autonomic
Nervous System
Brain Differences and Emotion
• Brain activity is different depending on
emotion - consistent with the
– Amygdala –
– Thalamus/ Right Hemisphere –
– Right prefrontal cortex/frontal lobe –
– Left prefrontal cortex/Frontal lobe • Nucleus accumbens – pleasure
– Anterior cingulate cortex -
Physiological Differences
– Polygraph – supports
________ Theory
• Used to detect lies
• Measures
• Problems
– Anxiety, irritation, guilt have similar
physiological activity
• Guilty Knowledge Test –
Cognition and Emotion
1. Sometimes emotions
cognition (Zajonc)
Develop emotional preference for stimuli
to which have been unknowingly exposed .
2. Some emotions occur without
(LeDoux).Go directly from
= fast/ automatic emotional
Ex. Jump at rustling bushes in the forest
(fear most likely precedes conscious
3. Emotions arise when we appraise event
to be beneficial or harmful whether
we know it or not(Lazarus) =
Injecting a person with an excitatory chemical
that activates the sympathetic nervous system
is likely to increase his or her subjective
experience of intense fear and anxiety. Use one
of the major theories of emotion to account for
the effects of this chemical on a person's
emotional state. Which theory of emotion would
have the greatest difficulty explaining these
effects? Why?
Detecting Emotion
• Nonverbal cues
– Duchenne smile
– Difficult to detect lying
better than
Gender, Emotion, and Nonverbal
better than
•Detecting emotions
•Emotional responsiveness
•Facial expressions of emotion
Gender, Emotion, and Nonverbal
Culture and Emotional Expression
•Individualistic countries –
•Gestures vary
Levels of Analysis for the Study of
The Effects of Facial Expressions
• Facial feedback – effect of facial expressions
on emotion
– Example:
• Behavior Feedback Theory – effect of your
behavior on emotions
– Example:
• A newspaper advice columnist suggests that
thinking can be controlled and changed but
that emotions are gut-level, biological
reactions that can't be controlled or modified.
Use your knowledge of emotion research and
theory to either support or refute the
columnist's claim.
Basic Emotions
• 10 Basic Emotions at birth(Izard)
• Other’s are combo of the 10 basic
• Adaptive value of fear
• Learned
– Conditioning – Observational Learning
• The biology of fear
• Phobias – fear disrupts ability to cope
• A motivational speaker claims “Fear is a
learned response! Babies are not born with
fears; they learn fears, which means fear can
be unlearned!” Use your knowledge of the
relationships between conditioning and the
biology of fear to critique the motivational
speaker's claims.
• Anger
– Evoked by events
– Catharsis – emotional release
• Catharsis hypothesis – relieves
aggressive urges/calms temporarily if
• Example:
• Andrea is furious because her steady
boyfriend spent half an hour talking with his
former girlfriend at last night's school dance. A
friend suggests that Andrea ought to get the
anger out of her system by repeatedly
pounding her pillow while she imagines that
she is hitting her boyfriend. Explain why this
might be an ineffective way for Andrea to
reduce her anger. Suggest better ways.
• Happiness
– Feel-good, do-good phenomenon –
• Example :
– Well-being – happiness/satisfaction
with life
• Example:
The Short Life of Emotional Ups and
• Watson’s studies
Wealth and Well-Being
Diminishing Returns Phenomenon - Once you have enough money
for comfort, having more money isn’t as meaningful
Wealth and Well-Being
• Happiness and Prior Experience
– Adaptation-level phenomenon - tendency
people have to quickly adapt to a new
situation, until that situation becomes the
• Example –
• Happiness and others’ attainments
– Relative deprivation – tendency for our
personal happiness to be heavily influenced
by others’ attainment
• Example -
Predictors of Happiness
• Jim, a 42-year-old engineer, is unhappy about
his yearly salary, although it is the highest
salary he has ever earned. His wife, Carla,
suggests that he vividly recall how little he
earned at the age of 32. She also recommends
that he watch a TV program about famine
victims in Africa.
• Use your understanding of psychological
principles to explain why Carla's suggestions
might help to increase Jim's feelings of
economic satisfaction.
Stress and Health
• Health psychology - subfield of psychology that
contributes to the prevention and treatment of
– Example:
• Behavioral medicine - interdisciplinary field that
integrates and applies behavioral and medical
knowledge to health and disease
Stress and Illness
• Stress - process by which we perceive and respond to
environmental threats and challenges.
– Stress appraisal
– Short-lived or perceived as challenges =
– Prolonged =
• Activation of sympathetic nervous system
• Fight or flight (Cannon) - Adrenal glands secrete
into blood steam
(outer part of adrenal glands)
• Tend and befriend (women)
• Social readjustment
rating scale (SRRS)
• Life Changing Units
(LCUs)- marriage,
change job, etc…
• The more LCUs you
have the higher your
score is on the SRRS.
• Those who score
higher are more likely
to have stress related
Seyle’s General Adaptation
• Describes our
response to a
stressful event.
• Three stages
1. Alarm
2. Resistance
3. Exhaustion
– Sources of Stress –
daily hassles, too
many things to do
General Adaptation Syndrome
Stress and the Heart
• Coronary heart disease – closing of vessels that
nourish the heart
• Type A versus Type B (Friedman and Rosenman)
– Type A –
– Type B –
Stress and Susceptibility to
• Psychophysiological illnesses – stress related
physical illness
– Examples –
• Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) – how psych,
neural and endocrine system together affect
immune system
– Lymphocytes – 2 types of white blood cells
• B lymphocytes –
• T lymphocytes –
– Macrophage – Immune system agent that ingests
worn-out red blood cells and tiny harmful bacteria
– Natural Killer (NK cells) - Immune system cells that
pursue and destroy diseased body cells
Stress and Disease
• Arthritis – overactive immune system
causes body to attack own tissue
• AIDS – stress can speed progression of
HIV to AIDS by limiting production of
• Cancer – doesn’t create cancer cells, but
may affect their growth by suppressing
the activity of t-lymphocytes
• What advice would a health psychologist give
to a student about the stress of an AP exam?
What are the potential benefits of this
stressor, and what are the possible
disadvantages of long-term stress?