US and Southeast Asia From SEATO to ASEAN Outline • US strategies of containment – original formulation – SEATO – Indochina and the Philippines • ASEAN –

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Transcript US and Southeast Asia From SEATO to ASEAN Outline • US strategies of containment – original formulation – SEATO – Indochina and the Philippines • ASEAN –

US and Southeast Asia
• US strategies of containment
– original formulation
– Indochina and the Philippines
– Post-Cold War changes
• U.S. and ASEAN
– Economy and security
Containment 1950s-1980s
• US foreign policy treated Southeast Asia
as an arena for competition with the Soviet
• Former US Secretary of State Henry
Kissinger: ``Our objective was to purge our
foreign policy of all sentimentality”
Appeal of Communism
• It seemed to be the wave of the future
– dramatic economic and technological
advances of the Soviet Union
– anti-colonialism
– ``importance by association” psychology
– opportunity for greater personal power
– public disappointment and resentment at the
poverty and violence after independence
Architect of Containment
• George Kennan’s original formulation
called for the coordinated use of political,
economic, and military influence to prevent
the expansion of Soviet control in vital
Original Formulation
Traditional Russian sense of insecurity
Stalin’s need for a hostile world
S.U. was not primarily a military threat
A long-term containment of Russian
expansive tendencies will lead to
– "either the break-up or the gradual mellowing
of Soviet power."
``Truman Doctrine” (1947)
• ``It must be the policy of the United States
to support free peoples who are resisting
attempted subjugation by armed minorities
or outside pressures”
• Implies that substantial US support could
be counted on anywhere, not just in those
vital regions
Economic Strategies
• In late 1940s, economic assistance was
the central pillar of anti-communist policy
– Marshall Plan to rebuild Western Europe
– The ``arsenal of democracy”
• technological and economic resources
Early Aid to Southeast Asia
• US pressured the Netherlands to give
independence to Dutch East Indies colony
• US-Indonesia economic and technical
assistance agreement in 1950
• US aid programs to Thailand and Burma in
Militarization in Policy
• US strategic shift of containment toward
reliance on military strength in 1950s
• Obligated US to ``bear any cost” against
communist incursions anywhere in the
SEATO (1954 - 1977)
• Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
• Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty
• Australia, France, Great Britain, New
Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines,
Thailand, and the United States
• oppose further Communist gains in
Southeast Asia
SEATO (1954 - 1977)
• Headquarters in Bangkok, Thailand
• SEATO's principal role was to sanction the
U.S. presence in Vietnam, although
France and Pakistan withheld support
• Unable to intervene in Laos or Vietnam in
‘60s and ‘70s due to its rule of unanimity
• SEATO was ultimately disbanded in 1977
Arc of Containment
``Falling Domino" Principle
• President Eisenhower (1954-04-07):
– ``beginning of a disintegration that would have
the most profound influences”
– ``the possible sequence of events, the loss of
Indochina, of Burma, of Thailand, of the
Peninsula, and Indonesia”
– ``the possible consequences of the loss are
just incalculable to the free world”
``Falling Domino" Principle
• Simplistic perception of a monolithic
Communist bloc
• Simplistic assumption that societies and
politics in the vast, diverse Asia-Pacific
region were essentially all alike
A Source of Misperception
• The communist-hunt of 1947-1953 in US
– Federal Employee Loyalty Program
– House Un-American Activities Committee
– Internal Security Act
– Senator Joseph McCarthy claimed
communists had infiltrated S.D. and US Army
• purged the Administration of its best senior
Asia expertise
US in the Philippines
• Philippines became a cornerstone of US
``containment” in Southeast Asia
• US shored up the Philippine government
with advisors and assistance
• US upgraded its two bases in the
– Clark Air Force Base and the Subic Naval
Clark Air Force Base
• Damaged by a volcanic
eruption in 1991
Subic Naval Base
• The air and naval bases
became the most consistent,
visible, and emotional of the
issues that troubled USPhilippine post-war relations
• Natural disaster and the end of
Cold War made these bases
less desirable to US
Subic Bay
• Closed in 1992
• Philippine government converted it
into a special economic zone to
attract investment
– Subic Bay Freeport Zone
– Commerce and tourism
• 1996 APEC Summit
ASEAN: overview
• Association of Southeast Asian Nations
• 10 member states
– Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia,
Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, &
• home to over 600 million people
• combined GDP of US$2.4 trillion
ASEAN: founding (1967)
• 5 founding members:
– Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia,
• Bangkok Declaration of 1967:
– accelerate economic growth
– promote regional peace and stability
– contain the spread of communism
End of Cold War
• ASEAN Free Trade Area
– initiated at ASEAN summit in 1992
– comprehensive program of regional tariff
– program later broadened and accelerated
– reaffirmed during Asian Financial Crisis of
• ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) 2015
End of Cold War
• Expansion of ASEAN
– 1995: Vietnam
– 1997: Laos
– 1997: Myanmar
– 1999: Cambodia
ASEAN: external links
• A joint forum with Japan was established
in 1977
• A cooperation agreement with the
European Community was signed in 1980
• ``ASEAN + 3”: regular series of meetings
at the cabinet and head-of-government
levels with Japan, China, and South Korea
since 1997
U.S. and ASEAN
• U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement is
America’s first FTA in Asia (2007)
• U.S. was the first non-ASEAN country to
name an ambassador to ASEAN (2008)
• U.S. signed ASEAN Treaty of Amity and
Cooperation (TAC) in 2009.
• U.S. was the first country to establish a
permanent mission to ASEAN (2010)
U.S. and ASEAN
• The US-ASEAN Trade and Investment
Framework Agreement (TIFA) was signed
in 2006.
• Four ASEAN countries: Brunei, Malaysia,
Singapore, and Vietnam, are participants
in the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)
trade agreement negotiations with the
United States.
U.S.-ASEAN Trade
• ASEAN ranks 4th after Canada, Mexico,
and China as a goods export market for
the United States
– $76 billion in goods and more than $22 billion
in services to ASEAN in 2012
– 78% increase since 2001
• The US is the 3rd largest trading partner
for ASEAN ($234 billion in 2012)
– 71% increase since 2001