Physical and Chemical Properties Solutions, Density, States of

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Transcript Physical and Chemical Properties Solutions, Density, States of

Physical and Chemical Properties
Solutions, Density, States of
Matter, and pH
Test Prep
Chemical or Physical Change
A Log Burning
Evaporation of gasoline
Sawing wood
Rusting nail
Exploding fireworks
Toasting a marshmallow
Freezing water
Crushing a can
Rotting egg
Boiling water
•Melting of Ice Cube
•Burning Paper
•Cooking an egg over easy
•Crystallization of sugar
•Evaporation of alcohol
•Corrosion of iron
•Shape of an apple
•Vinegar and baking soda making salt and water
•Burning of methane gas producing water and carbon
•Formation of silver sulfide when silver reacts with
•Condensation of water vapor on the outside of a can
• is mass lost, gained, or new substances
formed in a chemical change?
• Is a new substance formed in a physical
• A piece of metal has a mass of 35g as
determined on a balance. When the piece of
metal is placed in a graduated cylinder that
has 25ml of water in it, the water is displaced
to 32ml. What is the density of the piece of
Density of liquid A is 0.78g/ml
Density of liquid B is 1.45g/ml
Density of liquid C is 1.00g/ml
All are layered in a graduated cylinder. What
is the order top to bottom?
• Place the following in order from most dense
to least dense: gas; solid; liquid; plasma
• What if the material is water?
• Which is more dense, Ice or water?
• What does that mean about the atoms in the
water molecule as opposed to the ice
• The hundreds scale on a triple beam balance
reads 100. The tens scale reads 20 and the
ones scale reads 5. The box on the scale is
5cm x 5cm x 5cm. What is the density?
• 100+20+5=125g
• 5x5x5=125cm3
• Density =1gm/cm3
• D=M/V
• 35/32-25=
• 35/7=5g/ml
• The density of iron is 7.9g/cm3
• The density of silver is 10.5g/cm3
• Assuming the mass is the same, which would
have the greatest volume?
• Process by which the positive and negative
ions of a crystalline solid separate in water is
A. Saturation
B. Ionization
C. Dissociation
D. Solution
• How do you decrease the rate of a solid solute
going into a liquid solution?
• How do you INCREASE the rate of a solid
solute dissolving in water?
• Which statement about water is true?
A. Water is a polar substance
B. Water is made of 2hydrogen and oxygen
C. Water is made of 2 hydrogen and an oxygen
D. Water is an atom composed of many
• Holding less solute than the solvent can hold
at a given temperature
• Holding more solute than a solvent can hold at
a given temperature
• Holding all the solute a substance can hold at
a given temperature
• If you make a solution of 12g of salt in 24g of
water what will the mass be of the resulting
• Adding more solute to a solvent (increases or
decreases) the freezing point of the solvent
and (increases or decreases) the boiling point
• Water is a ___________
• Salt is a _____________
• A solution is what type of mixture?
• In order to increase the solubility of a gas in a
liquid what would you do to the temperature
and pressure?
• In order to neutralize a base you would add ?
• In order to neutralize an acid you would add ?
A substance has a pH of 12 and tastes bitter
A substance has a pH of 7
A substance has a pH of 2 and is sour
A substance that feels slippery
• Substance that allows small amounts of acids or
bases to be absorbed without harmful effects to the
body is
• A. Buffer B. Ester C. Enzymes D. Precipitate
• pH measures the __________ of hydronium
ions H3O+present in solution
• A. Strength b. Concentration
• c. Neutralization d. Versatility
• H3O+
• OH-
• Type of chemical reaction in which an acid
mixed with a base forms a salt and water
• A. Neutralization B. Decomposition
• C. Dilute
D. Concentrated
• A substance that changes color in the
presence of an acid or base like the litmus
paper or bromthymol blue
• A. Acid B. Buffer C. Indicator D. Glycerin
Phase Changes
• Substance that has a definite volume but no
definite shape
• Substance that has a definite volume and shape
• Substance that spreads evenly throughout a
• Particles move quickest in which phase
• Particles move slowest in which phase
• A gas-like mixture with no definite volume or
shape that is made up of positively and
negatively charged particles
Solid to liquid
Liquid to gas
Solid to gas
Liquid to solid
Gas to liquid
• Most matter (contracts, expands) when
• Most matter (contracts, expands) when
• Which has the greatest kinetic energy a solid,
liquid or gas?