How to reference using the DUT Harvard method - lgdata.s3

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Transcript How to reference using the DUT Harvard method - lgdata.s3

How to reference
using the DUT Harvard method
Reference and referencing
What is a reference?
 A detailed description of the source from which you have obtained
your information.
Referencing - What is it?
 Referencing is a system that allows you to acknowledge the sources
of information and ideas that you have used in your assignment /
 Whenever you use ANY words, ideas or information from ANY
source in your assignment / research you must acknowledge those
Why Reference?
Q. Is referencing necessary?
Whose information is it? Is it yours?
 To acknowledge the source
 To build the body of knowledge / research
 To avoid plagiarism
 To verify quotations
 To enable readers to follow-up and read more
fully the cited author’s arguments
Harvard Referencing System
 The DUT library referencing guide can help you to reference
your sources
• It costs R5 and is available from the Library Circulation Desk
• It can also be downloaded from the Library website at
• An interactive online guide is also available here
When do you reference?
• There are 2 parts to referencing…
• In-text - In the body of the paper / assignment
Podcasting started in early 21st Century. The reasons for this were
that mobile devices were becoming much more affordable and
popular and the technology for making podcasts allowed easy
access (Salmon & Edirisingha 2008: 21). One of the main reasons
for this is…
• List of References / Bibliography - At the end of the paper /
List of references
Beyers, R.N. 2009. A Five Dimensional Model for Educating the Net Generation.
Educational Technology & Society, 12 (4): 218–227. Available: (Accessed 2 October 2010).
Salmon, G. & Edirisingha, P. (eds). 2008. Podcasting for learning in universities.
Maidenhead: Open University Press.
In –text Citations
Lets look at in-text citations first
When citing references within the text of an assignment
or research project use :
• Surname of the author
• Year of publication
• Page numbers (if the information can be located on a
particular page)
eg. (Moloi 2012: 37)
In the South African education system the standards
within schools differs greatly (Moloi 2012: 37)
Examples of in-text citations
No page number as this a very general statement
• Summary eg.
According to Gresham (2010) accounting is important in
any company.
Citation includes Surname year and page
There is a semi colon between the year and
the page number
• Precise information eg.
Gresham (2003: 25) said that precise accounting is
a necessity for any business.
In-text reference can be at
the start or mid sentence…
A direct quote must be put in inverted commas “…”.
Direct quotes should be used sparingly.
You should rather put the information into your own
words and not use the exact words.
• Direct quotation eg
“Every business needs to keep accurate financial
records in order to remain sustainable and grow”
(Gresham 2003: 25)
…or at then end of the sentence
Extract from
Roberts, B. 2006. Scope of the Promotion of Access to Information Act 2 of 2000:
A comparative perspective. Politeia, 25(2):119
This example is an
extract from a
journal article written
by B Roberts
The use of the concept records rather than information is in accordance
with the tendency in other countries to subject only information that
already exists in a particular format and, as such constitutes a `record' to
has used in question (Snell and Freeman 2000: 584).
information that he found in
and has
Freedom of Information Act, the Canadian Access to
acknowledged these sources
Information Act and the Australian Freedom of Information Act make
provision for access to agency records, records of information and
documents (Janisch 2012: 15). According to Allars (1990: 149)
documents for the purposes of the Australian legislation do not refer
And in the or printed format, but include visuals
only to information in written
reference list
(such as a photograph or a map) and Information in electronicBoth
Reference List
Allars, B.N. 1990. The legislative process. 4th ed. Sydney: Cengage.
Janish, G. 2012. Freedom of information (online). Available:
(Accessed 24 Jan 2006).
Snell, N.M. and Freeman, J. 2000. Information in the digital age. Political Age, 25(6): 579-587.
Now lets look at…
The Reference List
 The list of references is a list of all the books, journal
articles, websites and any other sources you have
cited throughout your assignment.
 The reference list is arranged alphabetically by
author and includes specific information which is
listed in a very precise way.
Allen, C. 2012. How computers work. 3rd ed. London: MacMillan.
Mthembu, D. 2009. The effects of change. South African Journal of
accounting, 12(3): 21-31
Pandor, B. and Jack, L. 2008. Access to information for all. 2nd ed. Cape
Town: Longman.
Thomas, F. 2010. Accounting for beginners. Oxford: Oxford University
General rules
Where the item has no author, it is cited by its title,
alphabetically by the first significant word in the title
 The Concise South African Dictionary. 1990. Cape Town:
 Where there is no date - use n.d. to show there was
no date
 Darcy, T. n.d. Cost Volume Profit relationships (online)
Available: www.managingaccounting/ (Accessed 12
August 2012)
However if there is no date - you may want
to consider whether this is an appropriate
academic source for you to cite.
Steps involved in Referencing:
 Note down the full bibliographic details: ie.
Author/editor, year of publication, title, edition, place of
publication and publisher
Then this information must be written in this order and with
this punctuation
Surname, Initials. Year of publication. Title : Subtitle. Edition.
Place of publication: Publisher.
If it is the first
edition don’t
write it in the
reference list
Holland, B., Smith. T. and Dlala, G. 2007. Change management.
Chicago: Pearsons
Peterson, H. ed. 2003. Breaking free. 3rd ed. Cape Town: Struik
School dictionary, 1986. Cape Town: Longman.
Note the title is
written in italics
Where to find the bibliographic
information in the book?
Title page
Front cover
Reverse of
title page
Journals / periodicals
 To reference a journal article - you need to take down the
following information when using the article.
 Author of article, year of publication, title of article, title of
journal, volume and issue number of the journal, and page
 Then follow the correct format:
 Surname, Initial. Year. Title of article. Title of journal. Volume
number (issue number): page numbers of article.
 Alexander, N. 2001. Rise of the specialist. Financial Mail,
 Blacker, J. 1997. The late appointment. Management Today.
Spring: 23-27.
Where to find the bibliographic
information in a journal article
Volume and
issue numbers
Journal title
Publication date
Article title
Last page
of article
Starting page
Author’s Surname, Initials. Year of Publication. Article title: subtitle. Journal title,
volume number(issue number): page numbers.
Clark, B.R., Hartley, S.E., Suding, K.N. and de Mazancourt, C. 2005. The effect of
recycling on plant competitive hierarchies. The American naturalist, 165(6): 613-620.
Electronic information
Follow these formats for internet sources
Author’s surname, Initials. Year. Title (format). Available :
URL or Internet address (Accessed Day, Month and year)
 WWW page – With author
Dawson, J. 2004. How to Chair a meeting (online). Available: (Accessed 12 June 2012)
 WWW page – No author
Accounting systems in place (online). 2001. Available: (Accessed 23 July 2011)
Referencing an internet source
Author’s surname, Initials. Year. Title (format). Available: URL
(Accessed day Month year )
Soni, S. 2005.The challenges facing small business: A global perspective
(online). Available:
2005.pdf (Accessed 12 February 2013 )
Link from in-text citation
to the reference list
• Insert the citation at the appropriate place in the
text of the document….
…In his research Phillips (2004:22) states that
certain schools have not managed to provide a
proper standard …
• This will match up to the full reference at the
end ….
Phillips, J. 2004. The effects of outcomesbased education in rural schools. M.A.
thesis, University of Kwa Zulu Natal,
In his research Phillips (2010:22) states that certain schools have
not managed to provide a proper education for learners. In fact
many schools have failed outright to complete the syllabi
(Jansen 2011: 24). This has been compounded by the lack of
funding for schools in rural areas and a reluctance by teachers
to work in rural schools (Radebe and Marshall 2010: 67).
Reference list
Jansen, J. 2011. From failure to failure. South African Higher Education Journal
(online), 12(6):20-29. Available http://search.ebscohost.com_gg456G-&yhg
(Accessed 24 June 2012)
Phillips, J. 2010. The effects of outcomes-based education in rural schools. M.A.
thesis, University of KwaZulu Natal, Pietermaritzburg
Radebe, G. and Marshall, P. B. 2010. Cuts for Schools. The Mercury.
25 September : 4
Note the reference list is in alphabetical order of the
author (or first entry) but all types of sources (eg books,
internet) are in the same list.
Remember …
Always collect the bibliographic
information when you use it.
It is very hard to remember this
information or where you found it
3 months later !
…for a book
Author’s or editor’s surname(s) and initials
Year of publication
Edition number
City of publication
Also take note of the page numbers for in-text
…for a journal / periodical
Author’s surname and initials
Year of publication
Title of article
Title of journal
Volume and issue numbers
Page numbers of the article
…for the internet
Author (if available)
Type of medium eg. online
URL (web address)
Date accessed
How can the DUT Referencing guide
help you?
 The Referencing Guide contains instructions and examples
of how to reference different types of media eg e-Books,
journal articles, lecture notes etc.
Click on the type of media that you need to
reference eg a book with several authors
Example of a book with multiple
• The guide gives both the format to follow and an example
for both in-text and the reference list.
• You don’t have to remember how to reference every single
material type - use the guide and follow the example
Example of an online journal article
Formats to follow
Examples of internet sources
3rd Edition
Click when you are finished
to reveal the answer
Can you write a reference for this book?
Use the example below to help you
Surname, Initials. and Surname, Initials. Year of Publication. Title: sub title. edition.
Place of publication: Publisher.
Hunter, M.G. and Kazakoff, D. 2011. Small business: Journey to success.
3rd ed. London: Academic Publishing.
For more information…
• See your Subject Librarian or purchase the referencing
booklet which is available @ the library circulation desks
• Access the reference guide from the library website
• The pdf guide is available at
• The interactive online guide is available at