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Archaeologists study artifacts (monuments and relics left by ancient
Monsoons = seasonal winds from the Indian Ocean that bring heavy
rain; they dominate the climate of South Asia, the Middle East, and East
Economist = social scientist who studies production techniques
(manufacturing) and the exchange of goods and services (economy,
trade, buying, selling, market systems, supply, demand, etc.)
Mountains protected China (Himalayan Mountains) and were a route
used by Aryans to invade India (Hindu Kush)
Cities, complex governments, job specialization, and a writing system
are all characteristics of a civilization
Gilgamesh (Mesopotamia), The Odyssey (Greece), and The
Mahabharata (India) were epic works of literature that give historians
information about early civilizations
Gupta Empire = Indian golden age when Hindu traditions were
preserved, fine poems and dramas were produced, and Indian society
made advances in Mathematics, science, and medicine
8. Choice 2 is the correct response; words and phrases like worst, most
important, and highly effective are all opinions
9. Genghis Khan’s brilliant leadership and tactics, the use of the stirrup
(allowed mounted warriors to stand, turn, and shoot arrows efficiently)
and excellent horsemanship skills all led to the rise of the Mongol
10. The Grand Canal system allowed grain to be shipped between
Hangzhou and Beijing
11. The manor was surrounded by fields, pastures, and forests, which all
indicate the dependency on agricultural (farm) production
12. The Niger River was essential to the survival of West African kingdoms
QUESTIONS 13 to 18
13. The excerpt is from The Crusades through Arab Eyes which indicates the
Arab point of view (or opinion) of the Crusades
Italian city-states were located on the coast of the Mediterranean so the
Renaissance allowed Italy to prosper from trade
Monarchs during the Age of Absolutism sought to centralize their
political power (have complete, or absolute, authority over their
The Encounter and the Columbian Exchange describe the nature of
cultural interactions; these terms represent the interaction between
Native Americans and Spanish and Portuguese conquistadors
Middle Passage = the forced journey of enslaved Africans to the
Scientific Revolution – observation of the physical world and
experimentation were central ideas used to challenge traditional
authority; these ideas were cornerstones of the scientific method
QUESTIONS 19 to 25
19. Rousseau (The Social Contract) and John Locke (Two Treatises of Government,
natural rights) both agreed that a government should be based on the consent of
the governed
20. Louis XVI called the Estates General into session occurred first (May 5, 1789);
Declaration of Rights of Man (August 26, 1789); Reign of Terror (1793-1794),
Napoleon became emperor of France in 1804
21. The songwriter is complaining about inflation which is an economic cycle that
results in the general rise in prices and a decline in purchasing power
22. Karl Marx states in The Communist Manifesto that “history is the story of class
struggle”, which means capitalists (haves) will struggle against the
proletariat/working class (have-nots)
23. The Communist Manifesto called for a worldwide revolution to end the abuses of
the Industrial Revolution (rise of industrialization)
24. Japan wanted to create the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere (their empire)
in an effort to acquire natural resources
25. Joseph Stalin – Five-year plans and collectivization were designed to modernize
industry and agriculture (farms) in the Soviet Union
QUESTIONS 26 to 31
26. World War II – Adolf Hitler (Germany) and Emperor Hirohito (Japan)
were Axis dictators during WWII and they were depicted in the cartoon
Isolationism – one of the books in the cartoon is labeled Isolation
Handbook; the US was debating if we should stay out of WWII or get
involved by sending troops
Fascism = system of government that is marked by violence, terror,
censorship, blind loyalty to a dictator, extreme nationalism/patriotism;
Nazi Germany is an example
Frequent and full discussion of the historical evidence of certain events
is desirable; in other words, we need to discuss different viewpoints of
historical events so they become living truths
Nuclear proliferation = building more nuclear weapons; each nuclear
missile has a powerful nation’s name on it
Does technology (access to nuclear weapons/WMDs) control leaders?
QUESTIONS 32 to 38
32. The Hutu-led regime wanted to eliminate the Tutsi minority in Rwanda in 1994
due to hostile relations between these two rivals
33. The Middle East contained many different types of governments in 2003
according to the key in the lower left hand corner
34. The “one child” policy in China was adopted to reduce the population growth
rate; China is still the most highly populated country in the world
35. Amritsar (Hindu and Muslim Indians protested British policies), Soweto (Black
South Africans protested against the white-controlled government), Tiananmen
Square (Chinese students protested against the communist government); all of
these protests resulted in violence
36. All of these events occurred immediately before and during World War II and
Emperor Hirohito was the leader of Japan during this time period
37. Globalization Reaches the Wall; McDonalds, cola, and disco are all Western items
that have influenced China, thus showing how the global economy is
38. Desertification = the change from arable (farmable) land to desert; human
activity, droughts, and population growth are contributing to this problem
QUESTIONS 39 to 45
Justinian was the ruler of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire); he ruled from 527
to 565 AD and the empire became its largest under his rule; he also developed the Justinian
Code which was the basis of laws for Catholic and Medieval rulers
The Roman Empire and Manchu Dynasty created stability for those societies; after they fell,
there was poor leadership which led to weak centralized authority and interference from
Martin Luther posting the Ninety-five Theses led to the Protestant Reformation which
divided Christianity into two sects, Catholicism and Protestantism
The Age of Exploration (late 1400s to mid 1500s) occurred due to advances in navigation
technology (caravels, astrolabe, etc.) and the desire to obtain goods from Asia (thanks to
Marco Polo’s book, Travels)
Mercantilism = colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country because they
provided raw materials and markets for trade
During the Puritan Revolution , Charles I was forced to sign the Petition of Rights and the
Glorious Revolution resulted in the bloodless passage of the English Bill of Rights – this led
to the rise of parliamentary democracy/constitutional monarchy in England
Khruschchev (left) and Mao Zedong (right) = communist leaders of the Soviet Union and
QUESTIONS 46 to 50
46. Communism in cartoon is represented by the sickle and hammer
47. Imperialism = this is a policy whereby one nation dominates, directly or
indirectly, the political, economic , and social life of a foreign region;
spheres of influence, extraterritoriality, and protectorate are all terms
identified with imperialism
48. Napoleon and Hitler both failed to successfully conquer Russia due to
the country’s harsh climatic conditions (harsh winter)
49. Bolivar established Gran Colombia (1819), Castro (1959), NAFTA signed
in 1994
50. All three choices discuss how nations’ military leadership interacted with