Transcript Slide 1

The Mongols
CH 12
• Pastoral nomads in Mongolia
• Organized in clans and tribes,
fighting part of daily life, superior
horseback warriors
• Unified by Temujin in 1206, takes
title of Genghis Khan
• Shamanism, Buddhism
• Genghis
• Khan
The Mongol Empire under
• Conquest of Tangut empire in Central Asia
• Conquest of Northern China (Jin-Empire)
• If a city resists, everybody is slain, only
artisans and scholars are spared
• If town surrenders only tribute has to be
• Capital Karakorum
The Mongol War Machine
• Use of heavy and light cavalry, spies, later
siege engines and cannons
• Feigning defeat and ambushing enemy
• Very well organized, used flags in battle to
give commands
• Very mobile, covered up to 90 miles a day
• Composite bows with range of 300 yards
• Multi-ethnic army, Chinese, Persians,
Turks also included
Siege Warfare
Fighting on Horseback
The Empire after Genghis
• Genghis sons fight campaigns in
Russia, the Middle East, Central Asia,
and China
• Russia: Golden Horde
• Middle East: Ilkhan Empire
• China: Yuan dynasty
• Central Asia: Djagatai Empire
Mongol Impact on China
• All of China conquered by Kublai
Khan, Yuan dynasty (1271-1368)
• Tried to conquer Japan twice, Mongol
fleet destroyed by typhoon
(kamikaze), rest of Mongol army
defeated by samurai
• New capital Bejing (Tatu)
Impact on China
• Keep Chinese system of tax collecting,
governing, but foreigners (first Mongols,
then other Central Asians) have highest
position in government, Chinese only at
local and regional level
• Chinese barred from learning Mongolian,
intermarriage outlawed
• scholar gentry resents Mongols
Mongol Impact on China
• Improvements in transportation, widespread use
of paper money
• Increase in foreign trade (Pax Mongolica)
• economic boom under early Yuan
• later plague, corruption, factionalism,
xenophobia lead to fall of Yuan
• 1368 Ming dynasty, rules to 1643
• Chinese cultural practices remained unbroken
(revival of Neoconfucianism, civil service
Mongol Impact on Middle East
• Seljuks defeated
• Turkic groups pushed into Anatolia (Ottomans)
• 1258 Baghdad destroyed, last Caliph killed,
200.000 people killed (according to Hulagu
• Widespread destruction
• Iraq ceases to be center of Islamic world
• Mongol onslaught stopped by Mamluk dynasty
in Egypt
• Mamluks build strong centralized state based on
fear of Mongols
Mongol Impact on Middle East
• Mongols found dynasty (Ilkhan) that rules Middle
East, center in Persia
• Heavy taxes, farmland turned into pastures
• Only wine and silk industry flourish
• Ilkhan rulers convert to Islam (Shiite), Persian
became more influential
• Mongols intermix with Persian and Turkic
• No Mongol cultural traces
Mongol Impact on Russia
• Mongols destroy Kievan Rus
• Russia isolated from Europe, trade
• Only loose control by Mongols
• yearly tributes, collected by Moscow
• Mongols and their Turkic allies become
• No intermixing with Russian population
Mongol impact on Russia
• Moscow becomes stronger, centralizes
government, first to collect tribute then to
organize fight against Mongols
• Renounces Tatar overlordship by 1480,
pushes Mongols to the East
• Peasants have to pay twice, to Boyars
(Russian nobles) and to Mongols
• Serfdom increases
• Orthodox Church strengthened (tax
Global Impact
• Exchange of ideas: gunpowder, paper,
• awareness of other cultures, global trade grew
(Marco Polo: reports about paper money, use of
coal, safe and wealthy China under Mongol rule)
• International diplomacy on the rise (letters
exchanged between pope and great Khan,
Ilkhan offer alliance to crusaders in 1287)
• Spread of disease:
- plague spread along silk road, with Mongol
- Killed about 30 % of Chinese and European
population in mid 1300s