Eastern Eurasia, 1200 – 1500 C.E.

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Transcript Eastern Eurasia, 1200 – 1500 C.E.

Mongol Domination in Eastern Eurasia, 1200 –
A. The Mongol Conquests, 1206 – 1279
1. In 1206 Temüjin became Genghis Khan,
which literally means supreme leader of the
2. By 1215 Genghis Khan attacks the Jin
capital at Beijing.
3. Genghis dies in 1227 and is succeeded by
this son Ögödei who controls most of northern
China by 1234.
4. The capital of the Mongol empire was at
5. The Mongol Empire was united from 1206
to about 1265 – during this time the Khans of
the Golden Horde, Jagadai (Central Asia), and
the Il-khans (Middle East) were subordinate to
the Great Khan in Mongolia.
6. Khubilai declares himself great Khan in
1265 and the descendants of Jagadai refused to
accept him.
7. As a result of the infighting between
Khubilai and Jagadai’s descendants, Karakorum
was destroyed.
8. In 1271, Khubilai declares himself the
founder of the Yuan dynasty.
9. The ability of the Jagadai Mongols to
defend themselves from the Yuan leads to their
tendency to embrace Islam and the Turkic
B. The Yuan Empire, 1279-1368
1. Khubilai believed in all things Chinese
and encouraged its unity.
2. His son was trained in Confucian schools
and he made sure that Confucian conventions
were always acknowledged.
3. He made sure that Beijing would be the
capital in part due to its location along crucial
trade routes.
4. While the Mongols maintained Confucian
decorum, they also understood the importance of
immigrant professionals.
5. The Mongols brought in Persians, Arabs,
Uigurs, and Turks to emulate the direct taxation
of the middle east.
6. They also relied on Muslim scholars to
lead offices of calendar making and astronomy.
7. The Mongols ruled China by dividing it
into provinces much larger than they had been
8. In an attempt to secure credit, the imperial
government issued paper money but the
population failed to trust it.
9. To avoid an economic collapse, they
issued copper coins and cut off trade with Japan.
The Early Ming Empire, 1368-1500
A. Ming China on Mongol Foundation
1. During the 1360s, China was engulfed in a
bitter Civil War between various Mongol princes.
2. A charismatic Chinese leader by the name
of Zhu Yuanzhang successfully destroyed the
Yuan empire establishing the Ming Dynasty.
3. He later took the name Hongwu.
4. The transition from Yuan to Ming was
mainly symbolic in an attempt to reject the
5. The capital was moved from Beijing to
6. Emperor Hongwu practically cut off trade
with Central Asia and the Middle East.
7. He also attempted to eradicate paper
money but it proved too unhealthy for the
8. In 1403, an imperial prince by the name of
Yongle staged a coup d'état which allowed him to
rule from 1403 – 1424.
9. Yongle moved the capital back to Beijing
and improved upon the palace of Khubilai.
10. The central part of this complex became
known as the Forbidden City because the general
population was forbidden to go there.
B. Zheng He and 15th century trade
1. Yongle restored trade with the Middle
East and Ming conquests in Southeast Asia
spurned a need for connections via the Sea.
2. Zheng He was a trusted imperial eunuch
who led expeditions from 1405 to 1433.
3. Zheng He was a superb sea captain who
believed that his exploits were measurably
increasing the glory of Emperor Yongle.
4. Zheng He was a Muslim who’s father and
grandfather made the pilgrimage to Mecca.
5. His religious affiliation made him an
effective ambassador to the Indian subcontinent
and the Arabian peninsula.
6. His mission was twofold: affirm
allegiances/tributary status and advertise the
reversal of Hongwu’s policies.