WHAT IS MATTER?
●MATTER is anything that has
mass and takes up space.
oExamples of Matter: glass, paper, air, water, oil,
polysnow, bouncy balls, etc.
●SOLID (chair you sit in)
●LIQUID (water you drink)
●GAS (air you breathe)
●PLASMA (stars and space)
WHAT IS PLASMA?
●Go to: http://www.plasmas.org/whatare-plasmas.htm
●Read the website and answer: What is
About this picture: A huge, handle-shaped
cloud of relatively cool dense plasma
suspended in the sun's hot, thin corona.
(Image is taken from NASA's Web
Grapes and Plasma??? (Don't try at home!!!!)
Properties of Matter
●Matter has many different properties (not
everything is the same)
●Chemistry is study of the properties of
matter and how matter changes.
●Matter is classified into
2 main categories:
1) PURE SUBSTANCES
2) and MIXTURES
●A pure substance has a single kind of matter, that
is pure. This means it always has a specific
makeup or composition.
Table salt is a pure substance
made up of Sodium and Chlorine it
is ALWAYS NaCl
●There are THREE types of pure
substances: elements, molecules, and
● Go to http://www.thefreedictionary.com/composition What is the
definition of composition?
●Elements: A pure substance
composed of one kind of atom; the simplest
form of matter. Elements can not be broken
Aluminum is a
element found on
the Periodic Table.
It is a both solid
and a metal.
This is a model of the element Fluorine
●The atom is the basic
Black = Electrons (negative)
particle from which all
Purple = Neutrons (neutral)
elements are made.
Different elements have Red = Protons (positive)
because their atoms are
different. This is why
helium gas has different
properties than the metal
gold. The Core is the
●MOLECULES: A molecule is formed
when two or more atoms combine.
●Atoms combine due to a force of
attraction, called chemical bonds.
This is a WATER MOLECULE
The force that holds that hydrogen
and oxygen atoms together is
called a chemical bond.
●Compound: 2 or more elements chemically
combined together in a set ratio
EX: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Water (H2O)
A chemical formula
shows the elements in
a compound and the
ratio of atoms
●A mixture is made of two or more
substances (elements or compounds,
or both) that are together but NOT
●Each substance in a mixture keeps its
Soil is a “mixture”
●Not chemically combined
●What is sand? Go to:
●Go to the following website and write down
the definition of a mixture and some
●Mixtures are either
heterogeneous or homogeneous.
●Mixtures are classified by how
“well-mixed” they are.
●A solution is the “best mixed”
EX: Sugar water
●Characteristic Properties of
matter are the properties about a
substance that are always true
●Help identify unknown matter
●Characteristic Properties include
boiling point and melting point
●Water boils at 100 ºC
●Temp. at which a liquid
●Ice melts at 0ºC
●Temp at which a
thermometer …. It
gives you an idea
● Physical Change: changes the form of a substance but not its
EX: Filtering orange juice/pulp
● Chemical Change: a change that results in a new substance
EX: Burning Wood
Chemical Reactions . . .
●Physical Properties: are characteristics of
pure substances that can be observed
without changing it into substance.
●Examples of physical properties: hardness, texture,
flexibility, and color.
(metal is flexible and
●Chemical Properties: are characteristics of
pure substances that describe its ability to
change into a different substance
●Examples of chemical properties: flammability,
ability to react, ability to produce a new
Example: Iron rusting (Iron will
combine slowly with the air to form
a new substance, rust)