UNDP-UNEP Poverty- Environment Facility

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Transcript UNDP-UNEP Poverty- Environment Facility

TANZANIA PovertyEnvironment Initiative
Economic Valuation of Ihefu Wetland
Country Experience
Presented to the PEI Africa Regional Economic Forum
8-11 November 2010
Government of Tanzania
UNDP-UNEP Poverty- Environment Initiative
1.PEI Program Objectives
2.Key Achievements related to Economic
Valuation of Ihefu Wetlands
3.Objectives and Methodology
4.Key Findings/Recommendations
5.Policy Impact
6.Challenges and Response
7.Lessons Learned
8.Next Steps
Government of Tanzania
UNDP-UNEP Poverty- Environment Initiative
 PEI is a Joint Program between Government of Tanzania, UNDP Tanzania and
UNEP that commenced in July 2007 to December 2010.
 The overall goal of the program which is linked to Tanzania’s UNDAF (2007-2010) is
to contribute to poverty reduction and improved well-being of poor and vulnerable
groups through mainstreaming of poverty-environment linkages into national
development processes
 Programme implementation is coordinated by Vice-President’s Office (Division of
Environment) including
– Poverty Eradication Division (Ministry of Finance),
– National Environmental Management Council
– National Bureau of Statistics
– Prime Minister’s Office/Regional Administration and Local Government
– Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries
– University of Dar es Salaam (Environment for Development)
– Civil Society Organisations
– Media organizations.
 The total budget (2007-2010) is USD 4 million of which USD 3.45 million has been
Government of Tanzania
UNDP-UNEP Poverty- Environment Initiative
Outcome (1): Institutional capacity further enhanced to integrate
environment and livelihoods issues into sector and district level plans
and to implement strategic poverty-environment interventions at local
Outcome (2): Improved access and utilization of environment/livelihoods
data for use in MKUKUTA process and in local level planning
Outcome (3): Sustainable financing of environmental targets contained
in the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty
(NSGRP/MKUKUTA in Swahili)
Outcome (4): Promoting efficient utilization of rangelands and
empowering pastoralist to improve livestock productivity through
improved livestock productivity and market access
Government of Tanzania
UNDP-UNEP Poverty- Environment Initiative
 Public Environmental Expenditure Review in Mbozi,
Sengerama, and Singida in Tanzania
 Public Environmental Expenditure Review in Kongwa
District Council in Tanzania
 Review of Current Practices in Applying Economic
Instruments for Environment Management in Tanzania
 Economic evaluation of Ihefu wetlands
Government of Tanzania
UNDP-UNEP Poverty- Environment Initiative
OBJECTIVES: Economic valuation – Ihefu
 In Tanzania, many wetlands have been lost, degraded or are in the danger of
being lost/degraded as a result of increasing demands for land and water.
 An understanding of the socioeconomic value of wetlands is crucial when
deciding on conservation and development priorities related to land use and
the allocation of scarce water resources.
 Usangu flood plain in which Ihefu is part of it is important to the local people
and the general public
 More than 65% of Hydropower comes from waters originating in this area
 The purpose of valuation is to give an indication of the extent of household,
village, district and national
economy dependence on the natural
environment of the Ihefu wetland.
 To quantify the total economic value of wetland at household, village, district
and national level
Government of Tanzania
UNDP-UNEP Poverty- Environment Initiative
METHODOLOGY: Valuation Ihefu
 In order to evaluate the economic value of wetlands, we first define and
specify the spatial boundary of the wetland in question following IUCN
definition of a wetland.
 This is then followed by the identification of all services (benefits) of the
wetlands ecosystem under study.
 Three methods of data collection were employed during the survey to obtain
primary data and secondary data.
 The household survey, focus group discussions and field observation.
 The selection of households to be interviewed was based on a combination of
stratified and random sampling.
 The sample was stratified according to the four levels (administrative
structure) – ward, village, hamlet and the household
Government of Tanzania
UNDP-UNEP Poverty- Environment Initiative
METHODOLOGY: Valuation Ihefu
 The stratification started at ward level where only wards near or covering
Ihefu wetland was included for the study.
 The second stage was the selection of village from each ward. Here village
proximity to the Ihefu wetlands resources (water and forests) was considered.
 In addition, village selection included those new villages established as result
of eviction of people from the Ihefu wetlands.
 This was important to get information on what and how was the situation in
both periods (before and after eviction).
 The third level was the selection of households from each village. In this
case, selection of household for the study was done by ensuring
representativeness i.e having mixed kind of respondents in terms of age
composition, gender, economic status, harvesting and use of resources,
economic activities etc.
Government of Tanzania
UNDP-UNEP Poverty- Environment Initiative
METHODOLOGY: Valuation Ihefu
 A total of 600 households (30 from each village) were sampled for interview
 In each selected household, a head of household or elder member of the
household was interviewed using a pre – tested questionnaire.
 For the focus group, a total of ten (10) people formed a focus group in each
 The group composed of village government officials, and other village
members who are not in government.
 This was important to have both government and non government opinion.
 Information from the focus group were used to generate important data for
both validating household data and
 also extrapolating some data to get standard values for estimation purposes.
Government of Tanzania
UNDP-UNEP Poverty- Environment Initiative
METHODOLOGY: Valuation Ihefu
 Field observation was also done in each village for the aim of having in our
mind the actual situation on the ground. Eg resource use (firewood, poles
etc), crop grown (by visiting rice farms in some villages), state of
infrastructure such as schools, dispensaries, water sources etc.
 At the end of village visits, we further visited District Administrative office,
PCCB office, District Agricultural and Livestock Officer for some discussion
on matters related to Ihefu and peoples welfare.
 This was important and formed a basis of establishing the validity of what the
individual households’ members and focus group discussion have given
during interviews.
 We requested a visit to Ruaha National park, but his has not been okeyed
 We will soon visit Tanzania National Park Authorities (TANAPA) and the
Ministry of natural Resources and Tourism for the same discussion.
Government of Tanzania
UNDP-UNEP Poverty- Environment Initiative
The preliminary findings of the study identified socio-economic activities
and key environmental problems in the study areas.
In all villages surveyed, the main economic activities - agriculture, animal
grazing, business, and wage employment
Other economic activities (in very small scale by some households)
including sale of firewood, charcoal, furniture, local brew, leasing of farm
land and supplying casual labour to estates.
Government of Tanzania
UNDP-UNEP Poverty- Environment Initiative
Household economy is totally dependent on agriculture, livestock, N.R
harvesting and Business.
Any disruption from these activities would have detrimental effect to the
living condition of majority households in the study area.
Economic situation – household economic situation have deteriorated now
as compared to their life situation in the past five years.
Change in the economic situation has been attributed by conversion of the
Ihefu wetlands into National park.
By being national park, households have no access for any form of
economic activity in the area, contrary to what they used to do before.
Government of Tanzania
UNDP-UNEP Poverty- Environment Initiative
All households who were depending on resource harvesting from Ihefu
have lost completely their means of livelihoods and income
some have resorted either farming, while others are yet (not doing anything
at the moment) in order to get their living.
This situation have made majority household members suffering from lack
of shelter, food, other services such as medical and schools.
In all villages, individuals have lost the opportunity to collect resources for
food, income and other uses.
This has been so as a result of conversion of the wetland into the national
Government of Tanzania
UNDP-UNEP Poverty- Environment Initiative
The reported loss is on the following products: Fish, firewood, poles,
wild meat, wild fruits etc.
Households’ members were used to collect these products freely in
the area. But what has happen now, non of these could be
From the livelihood and poverty reduction point of view, households
have lost significant opportunity for their means of living and poverty
There are two dimensions into which households are negatively
affected by the current conversion of Ihefu wetland into National
In addition to the lost opportunity, these households also face
additional costs in obtaining these products from alternative sources
Conflict on resource use between the managers of the resource
(TANAPA) and users (community adjacent)
Reduced land holding for agriculture and livestock – area is under
park management.
Government of Tanzania
UNDP-UNEP Poverty- Environment Initiative
The data analysis work is still ongoing it is not possible to draw any
recommendations at this stage
One of the recommendation that is coming from our preliminary
results is to allow the local community to harvest resource from the
wetlands. This is especially allowing the community fish from the
wetland. However, this should be done under strictly enforcement to
ensure that no destructive efforts in use.
Majority of the communities in the study area were complaining
about the lack of sufficient land for farming and livestock keeping.
This is especially after their farms being taken as part of the Ruaha
National Park. Thus there are a desperate need of alternative means
of livelihood.
Government of Tanzania
UNDP-UNEP Poverty- Environment Initiative
 According to national park policy, areas under its
jurisdiction are non accessible for resource extraction.
In such case to allow fishing to go on in Ihefu wetland
will require the relaxation of this policy.
 Key advocacy group in this should be the local
communities, local NGOs especially those focusing on
poverty-environment linkages, VPO-DoE, NEMC,
academicians etc
 Our preliminary results show that only 1.2% of the
surveyed areas use electricity for lighting, 0.17% use
gas for cooking, thus is rural electrification policy is
speeded up there is huge potential of increasing the
number of rural using electricity, thus reducing their
heavy reliance on firewood and charcoal.
Government of Tanzania
UNDP-UNEP Poverty- Environment Initiative
 Finalize analysis
 Hold two stakeholder workshops (Dar
and Mbeya