History of Globalization

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Transcript History of Globalization

1 st test next week on last week and this week’s lectures.

Study the PowerPoint and Use the Study Guide that’s on the website.

Questions are taken from the visible PowerPoint slides.

More detail is on the hidden slides or slide notes but no questions are taken from them.

Data questions: No specifics required unless I say so in lecture but you need to know ‘greater than, increase/decrease’ type answers.

Date questions: I give you dates/periods and you have to know what went on.

1. Major trends that have shaped the world since 1945.

2. Two approaches to/themes of globalisation.

3. Limits of Globalisation.

4. Globalisation has seen the expansion of what?

5. Some of the principle driving factors of globalisation.

Is not a substitute for studying nor will I entertain complaints that it misguided you!

8. Territoriality and the socio-cultural needs of groups.

9. Globalisation changes 10. Contagion and Babel refer to what.

Normally: Do not expect you to remember any data slides except in terms of greater than, less than, increase,

14. Composition of the global territorial economic system.

decrease terms etc, unless I mention that you need to remember the data in class.

17. Precursors to the industrial revolution.

18. Mercantilism, renaissance, revolution – attributes and links.

Do not expect you to remember dates - I give you

20. Defining regions.

periods and you need to know what went on.

22. Bretton Woods Agreement.

23. Reasons for pursuing nationhood.

24. Ardrey’s Territorial Imperative.

25. Attributes of the pre-1945, 1945 to 1973, and post-1973 periods.

26. The Global Village as a concept and historical reasons.

27. Dependencies, blocs, autonomous areas, federations.

To Do Today List – Look at…

What’s in a name – countries, nations, states, regions.

Changing structure of the world – how many of what do we have.

What happens when countries don’t make it – failed states.

Why people want to be a nation – Ardrey’s Territorial Imperative.

How we got to be an urban species – socio-economic evolutions and revolutions.

Colonialism, past, present, future.

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Unraveling the World

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Just How Many Countries Are There Anyway?

Not as easy as it seems to count countries.

No agreement on the exact number, even of countries (strange but true).

No agreement (really) on what constitutes a country (stranger but just as true).

And then there is a nation – does it differ from country? And what about a state? Or State?

Jewish nation? Jewish State? Israel? All the same?

First Nations?

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What’s in a Name? Country.

The term “country” is usually considered to be a politically independent entity.

But there are examples where this is not the case as with the component “countries” of the U.K. – Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland and England.

And then of course there’s “countryside”, which has nothing to do with sovereign nationhood… … unless it refers to terroir, such as Basque country.

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What’s in a Name? Terroir.

Originally the geographic attributes of a growing area: e.g. wine, coffee, chocolate, Extended to include social/cultural aspects of a larger region such that it means “our country”. E.g. Basque country or Catalonia or even Quebecois.

Often extends into separation and secession movements.

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What’s in a Name? State and state.

State (uppercase ‘S’) is usually used synonymously with country to mean autonomous political entity.

To be clear that it refers to an autonomous country, the term is sometimes preceded by the word ‘sovereign’ as in sovereign States.

A ‘small ‘s’ state is a unit within a sovereign State – such as the states of the United States.

However virtually no-one pays attention to the big ’S’ small ’s’ distinction!

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What’s in a Name? Nation.

A nation can be many things: all countries are nations but not all nations are countries.

Examples would be the Jewish nation, which refers to all Jewish people as distinct from the secular and spatially contiguous State of Israel. Then there are the North American Indian nations, the United Nations – or the Ford nation Lord Durham (of The Durham Report, 1848) was sent to Canada to examine what was going on between the English and the French. He reported that he found “two nations warring in the bosom of a single state.” He recommended a union of Upper, Lower Canada and the Maritime Provinces.

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What’s in a Name? Other Qualifiers.

Other names used to represent sovereign Statehood: Kingdom, Monarchy, Empire etc, (from which we get the word sovereign).

Republic means ruled by the people through elections in law. Flavours are: Federal Republic or Democratic Republic (usually when they are neither), Islamic Republics (never are), Union of… etc.

Then there is the Most Serene Republic of San Marino.

Dominion, as in Dominion of Canada.

Commonwealth, Federation, etc.

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The Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States (1933) Article 1:

“The state as a person of international law should possess the following qualifications: (a) a permanent population; (b) a defined territory; (c) government; and (d) capacity to enter into relations with the other states.”

Article 3 (states that…):

“The political existence of the state is independent of recognition by the other states.“

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Declarative versus Constitutional Declarative theory of statehood:

A nation exists regardless of whether other nations recognize it ... comes out of Article 3 of Montevideo Conference.

Constitutional theory of statehood:

A nation requires recognition by other nations to be legitimate.

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Declarative versus Constitutional

But can a nation be recognised and its government not? (e.g. currently, Burma, Zimbabwe).

Yes, in general. The United States recognises Burma as a nation state but not the current regime or name of Myanmar – the regime’s name for Burma.

And how many nations does it take to recognize another?

Not all. Israel is not recognised fully by 36 other U.N. nations, including Taiwan because Israel chooses to recognise mainland China.

And which states? Would you rather that the United States or Haiti recognised you?

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De Jure and De Facto Recognition

De jure

recognition means recognition in law.

De facto

recognition means recognition by control – of territory and/or population.

Usually de jure states are also de facto states, but examples exist otherwise (e.g. the Republic of France during the Nazi occupation).

Real test of nationhood is how many other nations recognize your claim.

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Who Recognises Who – Or Not?

Non-UN States not recognised by any other State (1): Partially recognised U.N. member States (6):

Republic of Somaliland.

Republic of Armenia.

Non-UN States recognised by non-U.N.

People’s Republic of China.

member States (2):

Nagorno-Karabakh Republic.

Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

Non-UN States recognised by a U.N. member State (7):

Republic of Abkhazia Republic of China (a.k.a. Taiwan) Republic of Kosovo.

Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.

State of Palestine.

Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.

Republic of South Ossetia.

Republic of Cyprus.

State of Israel.

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.

Republic of Korea (S. Korea).

IN TOTAL 16 STATES.

NO DON’T TRY AND REMEMBER ALL THESE They won’t be on any test

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And then there are…

Dependencies

Territories that exist external to but dependent on de jure nations – e.g. Bermuda and the U.K.

Autonomous Areas/Regions

Territories that exist as partially self governing units within de jure nations – e.g. Sicily.

Federations

A union of partially self governing de jure states that form a de jure nation under a central federal government. E.g. USA and the Russian Federation.

Criteria:

Are they external or internal to the host nation?

How autonomous are they?

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And…

Blocs

Loosely connected groups of territories sharing some commonality of culture, commodity, production, region, politics, religion, etc.

Examples:

OPEC as a commodity bloc.

• NAFTA nations as a trading bloc.

• League of Arab Nations as a cultural bloc.

EU as a regional multi factor, principally economic bloc.

And about 200 others.

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So just how many countries are there anyway?

Depends who you ask.

US State Department 1 UN 2 Wiki 3 # of de jure independent states # of other

195 66 193 ?

206 11

TOTAL DE JURE ENTITIES 261 193 217

2 U.N. also has The Vatican and Palestine with permanent observer status.

3 Includes 16 contested de jure entities.

Canada recognises 207 spatial units with a diplomatic, consular or trade office presence.

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Nations, New and Old

Region Oceania Asia & Middle East Europe and Russian Federation Africa North & Central America South America TOTAL ALL REGIONS Total # of nations Number Percent of all nations of nations created in region since 1945 New nations as a % of all nations in a region New nations as a % of all new nations in the world

14 43 7.2% 22.2% 12 34 85.7% 79.1% 8.7% 24.6% 47 55 23 12

194

24.2% 28.4% 11.9% 6.2%

100.00%

26 53 11 2

138

55.3% 96.4% 47.8% 16.7%

71.1%

18.8% 38.4% 8.0% 1.4%

100.00%

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• • •         

New Countries Since 1990

Fifteen new countries became independent with the dissolution of the USSR in 1991.

Yugoslavia dissolved in the early 1990s into five independent countries.

Thirteen other countries came and went through a variety of causes:

Namibia became independent of South Africa.

North and South Yemen merged.

East Germany and West Germany merged.

The Marshall Islands gained independence from the U.S. Micronesia gained independence from the U.S.

Palau gained independence from the U.S.

The Czech Republic and Slovakia became independent nations.

Eritrea gained independence from Ethiopia.

Crimea is in limbo as part of Ukraine.

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Nations and Nuances

• • • •

United Nations entities:

193 member states of UN plus The Vatican; 9 de facto independent states lacking general international recognition; 38 inhabited dependent territories; 5 special entities recognised by international treaties; •

Micronations:

68 of them worldwide, most tongue-in-cheek, others long lived and pretending to be serious: e.g. Sealand (1967), Seborga (954), and Perloja (1918- had army!).

…and some of the others…

Pheasant Island, Mount Athos monasteries, Sovereign Military Order of Malta, the UN building, consuls and embassies, airports, Unrepresented Nations and Peoples, piracies – e.g. Puntland state Somalia, etc), airport lounges, cruise ships in international waters.

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Just Cruisin’

• • A ship in a country’s inland waters is subject to the state, provincial, municipal or country’s laws.

A ship within the 12 mile territorial limit is subject to country’s laws.

• A ship within 24 miles is subject to some national laws such as those related to smuggling.

A ship beyond 24 miles is on the high seas and subject to the laws of the country of registry. Thus…

• A ship registered in The Netherlands could, legally, provide prostitution or euthansia services on the high seas.

• • If registered in Amsterdam it could provide legal access to marijuana as well.

Ships are subject to any civil law suits but usually the ticket fine prints liability away.

• In the past five years, 28 people have been lost overboard and not found.

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Uncontacted Peoples

There are few truly uncontacted people left in the world – perhaps 150 tribes. Most are in Papua New Guinea and the Amazon. Those that exist have usually had dealings with ‘civilized’ humans and have not benefited from it so shun it.

Unidentified indigenous tribe in Brazil’s Amazon.

The Sentilese: North Sentinel Island in the Andaman Islands, part of India but isolated likely for over 60,000 years.

To which “nation” do these people “belong”? Their wish is to belong to no one.

http://magazine.good.is/articles/isolated-sentinelese people?utm_source=thedailygood&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=dailygood

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Failed States Are…

De facto or de jure nations where central governance is too weak to have effective control over its territory and population.

Failed (Fragile) States Index developed by the Fund for Peace think tank and Foreign Policy journal.

Based on an index comprising three sets of twelve variables.

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Failed State Index Criteria

• • • •

Social Indicators:

Mounting demographic pressures.

Massive movement of refugees creating humanitarian emergencies.

Legacy of vengeance seeking, group grievance, group violence.

Chronic and sustained human flight.

• •

Economic Indicators:

Uneven economic development along group lines.

Sharp and/or severe economic decline.

• • • • • • •

Political Indicators:

Criminalization and/or delegitimization of the state.

Progressive deterioration of public services.

Suspension or arbitrary application of the rule of law.

Widespread violation of human rights.

Security apparatus operates as a state within a state.

Rise of factionalised elites.

Intervention of other states or external political actors.

Nope, don’t have to remember these.

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The Failed States Index 2014

http://www.fundforpeace.org/global/?q=fsi STRUCTURE - FAILED STATES

Consistent top ten membership of several countries year over year.

2007 Sudan Iraq Zimbabwe Chad

Nations

Cote d'Ivoire Congo Afghanistan Guinea Central African Rep.

2011 Somalia Chad Sudan Congo

2/35

Haiti

Nations

Zimbabwe Afghanistan Central African Rep.

Iraq Cote d’Ivoire 2008 Somalia Sudan Zimbabwe Chad

5/35

Iraq

Nations

Congo 2012 2009 Somalia Zimbabwe Sudan Chad

4/37

Congo

Nations

Iraq Afghanistan Afghanistan Central African Rep.

Pakistan Guinea

Worst/worst three

Somalia Congo Sudan Chad

2/33

Somalia Congo Sudan

4/31

South Sudan Afghanistan Chad

Nations

Yemen Haiti Afghanistan Yemen Haiti Iraq Central African Rep.

Central African Rep.

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Zimbabwe 2010 Somalia Chad Sudan

4/37

Afghanistan Iraq Central African Rep.

Guinea Pakistan 2014 South Sudan Somalia Congo Chad Afghanistan Yemen Haiti Pakistan

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Regions

What Regions Aren’t:

Real.

What Regions Are:

Convenient labels imposed by humans.

Often overlapping.

Defined by unique variables and criteria that often differ depending who’s defining, so subjective.

Changeable over time and space.

Specific to large and medium scale (i.e. no ‘regions’ in a city).

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World Regions

Regions defined as areas with unique characteristics, but no objective way to define “unique”.

E.G “Asia” vast area of diverse political, ethnic, language, religion, economic, political, physical attributes.

“North America” little more than a label imposed by European conquerors.

Even macrogeology/biomes change over time and space.

What is desert now was tropical forest or ocean 5,000 or 5 million or 500 million years ago, and will be STRUCTURE - REGIONS again.

World Regions - a list of lists

• • • • • • • • UN (IGO) WHO (IGO) World Bank (IGO) Population Reference Bureau (INGO) US State Department (GO) External Affairs, Canada (GO) CIA Factbook (GO) National Geographic (Private) STRUCTURE - REGIONS

World Regions According To… USE THIS LIST FOR YOUR ESSAY United Nations - IGO

• • • • • • •

WORLD MACRO REGIONS:

Caribbean Central America, South America, Northern America Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa Eastern Asia, South-central Asia, Western Asia, South eastern Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia Australia & New Zealand

USE THIS LIST FOR YOUR ESSAY

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World Regions According To…

World Health Organisation (WHO) - IGO

• • • • • • African Region (46 countries) European Region (53 countries) Eastern Mediterranean Region (21 countries) Region of the Americas (35 countries) South-East Asia Region (11 countries) Western Pacific Region (27 countries) STRUCTURE - REGIONS

World Regions According To…

World Bank - IGO

• Africa • Sub Saharan Africa • • • Middle East and North Africa East Asia and Pacific Europe and Central Asia • Euro Area • • • Latin America and the Caribbean North America South Asia • • •

Socio-economic:

Low Income Middle Income Hi Income STRUCTURE - REGIONS

World Regions According To…

PRB World Data Sheet (INGO)

• • • • • •

Geographic :

Africa (north, west, east, middle, south) North America (Canada, U.S.) Latin America (Central, Caribbean, South) Asia (West, South Central, Central, East) Europe (Northern, Western, Eastern, Southern) Oceania • • • •

Socio-economic:

More developed countries Less developed countries Less developed countries excluding China Least developed countries STRUCTURE - REGIONS

World Regions According To…

• • • • • • •

U.S. State Department (GO)

African Affairs East Asian and Pacific Affairs European Affairs Near Eastern Affairs New Independent States of the Former USSR South Asian Affairs Western Hemisphere Affairs STRUCTURE - REGIONS

World Regions According To…

• • • • •

Foreign Affairs, Canada (GO)

North America Latin America and the Caribbean Afghanistan Task Force Europe, Middle East and the Maghreb Asia & Africa STRUCTURE - REGIONS

World Regions According To…

• • • •

CIA Factbook (GO)

The Office of Asian Pacific, Latin American, and African

Analysis - Asia, Latin America, and Sub-Saharan Africa.

The Office of Iraq Analysis

The Office of Near Eastern and South Asian Analysis Middle Eastern and North African, South Asian nations of India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. The Office of Russian and European Analysis provides intelligence support on a large number of countries that have long been of crucial importance to the United States as allies or as adversaries and are likely to continue to occupy a key place in US national security policy.

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World Regions According To…

• • • • • • •

National Geographic (Private)

Australia and Oceania Caucasus and the Middle East Central America, South America, U.S., Canada, & Mexico Central Asia, Eastern Asia, Southern Asia Eastern Europe, Western Europe Northeastern Africa, Northwestern Africa, Southern Africa West Indies STRUCTURE - REGIONS

So what are regions then?

However we choose to define “regions”, make no mistake – they are human constructs and nothing more.

And they occupy an even more fleeting moment than somewhat sturdier geologic ones.

They exist because we say they do, and not because they do.

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United Nations World Regions

• Australia & New Zealand

for Essay

• Caribbean • Central America, South America, Northern America • Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa • Eastern Asia, South-central Asia, Western Asia, South-eastern Asia, • Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe • Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia STRUCTURE - REGIONS

And then there’s The World According to the United States, (well, sort of…)

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Regional Geography of Australia Aussie Style

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Regionalizing the World by Population Size Isodemographic Map of World Population Countries are scaled in size according to their populations.

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Regionalizing the World by Income Isodemographic Map of World GDP Countries are scaled in size according to their GDP.

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HISTORY - PROCESS - PREGLOBAL

The Fundamentals of Change Mercantilism + Renaissance = Revolution Money + Freedom = A New World Order

HISTORY - PROCESS - PREGLOBAL

Mercantilism

+ Renaissance = Revolution

Refers to an era when trade became the principal means of wealth generation.

Begins in 12 th century with opening of trade routes by crusades.

By 15th to 17th century Age of Exploration leads to expanded resource base and trade routes.

By 18 th century immense surplus of capital generated in Europe through trade, along with banks and currency.

the creation of a wealthy merchant class that contrasts with the “landed gentry” of the Middle Ages.

Fundamental shift in how money was earned and who owned it.

HISTORY - PROCESS - PREGLOBAL

Mercantilism +

Renaissance

= Revolution

Transition from medieval to modern history starting in the early 14 th century.

Across 15th to 19th centuries the Ages of Reason and Enlightenment were in full bloom in Europe. Characterised by the emancipation of scientific thought and methods of inquiry, discovery of the scientific principles necessary for the development/application of machinery.

Freedom from religious interpretations of nature and social behaviour critical reappraisal of the political economy and the development of democratic capitalism in most of Europe.

Fundamental shift in human world view.

HISTORY - PROCESS - PREGLOBAL

Mercantilism + Renaissance =

Revolution

Transition from a chiefly agrarian society to an industrial society, early 18 th century, U.K.

Characterised by the application of scientific principles and inanimate power sources to the development and use of industrial machinery in producing goods.

Creates a new division of labour: factory workers who produce and consume goods, market that is consumption driven.

Starts process of urbanisation, growth of personal & national wealth the creation of public institutions.

Result is a new type of political economy – capitalist democracy.

HISTORY - PROCESS - PREGLOBAL

A Short History of Globalisation

For our purposes three periods to discuss: Pre- 1945

@1870-1914: growth, innovation, expansion 1918-1945: risk taking crash sobering reality

1945 to 1973

Global institutions prosperity naiveté

1973 to present

mid 70s to mid 80s – shock and pessimism mid 80s to mid 90s – recovery and restructuring mid 90s to mid 2008 – growth and greed post 2008 – sobering reality (again)?

HISTORY - PROCESS - POSTWAR

Pre 1945

1945-1973

1973-Now

1870 until 1914:

Growth of capital, labour, and trade.

Innovations in transportation & communications technology.

1918-1945 (complicated hiatus):

WW I (1914-1918) caused cessation in growth & trade, then huge growth (roaring twenties) until ended by...

... the Great Depression (1929-1932) & after … ... protectionist policies stifled growth and international trade until after WW2.

Was perhaps the first stage of globalisation though this would be disputed as merely a continuation of internationalization and economic liberalism.

HISTORY - PROCESS - POSTWAR

Pre 1945

1945-1973

1973-Now

Period of unprecedented growth and prosperity in the west under the Keynesian model.

Birth of many impoverished nations.

Politically, world divides into 1 st , 2 nd , and 3 rd Economically, worlds.

each has very different characteristics.

Socially, creation of the ‘global village’ of McLuhan.

Three global economic structures:

1. Bretton Woods: World Bank, IMF, gold to currency.

2. Marshall Plan: $14b to rebuild Germany and Japan.

3. GATT: Free trade among signatories.

Watershed: 1973 oil crisis

Cessation of western growth and prosperity.

Rebirth of free market thinking.

HISTORY - PROCESS - POSTWAR

Pre 1945

1945-1973

1973-Now Post Oil Crisis Pessimism – 1973 until 2000

History has yet to “officially” characterize the past four decades but we can possibly see it as: - a decade of shock and pessimism - a decade of recovery and restructuring - a decade of growth and greed - perhaps now a decade of sobering reality?

HISTORY - PROCESS - POSTWAR

Pre 1945

1945-1973

1973-Now Mid 70s to mid 80s - Shock and Pessimism

Optimism, growth and prosperity of post war years ends, Keynesian economic policy stumbles and eventually fails.

Western nations find themselves vulnerable to debt and the development of newly industrialising nations.

U.S. had changed from gold standard for its dollar to production as measure of wealth – increased competition and obsolescence. Developing countries took on huge debt loads trying to address balance of power and balance of payments.

Debt and related political problems of the developing world begin to impact the financial institutions of the West.

Pre 1945

1945-1973

1973-Now

Mid 80s to early 90s - Restructuring and Recovery

The corporate west diversifies, globalises and modernises.

Corporations create international division of labour and come to control foreign companies.

Foreign policy increasingly becomes economic policy driven by TNCs.

Financial sector becomes a driving force in wealth creation.

Countries shifted to the political, economic and social right, adopting free market, deregulatory, monetarist policies.

Cracks in the planned economies of the world become too big to hide or repair – Soviet de-colonialisation follows.

HISTORY - PROCESS - POSTWAR

Pre 1945

1945-1973

1973-Now

Mid 90s to 2008 Crisis - Growth and Greed

Development of transnationals, high growth in the financial sector, shift towards free market, deregulation and right wing politics creates a global laissez faire economic system.

End of 1990s, the laissez faire attitude of the global financial sector unraveled in the Asian Meltdown that eventually threatened the whole global economic system.

Debt laden developing countries brought under control of global financial institutions whose loans were tied to the adoption of free market, monetarist policies.

1999 WTO meeting in Seattle: opposition to globalisation begins in response to meltdown of the global economy.

HISTORY - PROCESS - POSTWAR

Where We Are - or Where Are We?

Post 2008 Crisis - A Decade of Sobering Reality?

Still too close to this period to know for sure what has happened let alone where it is going.

The west has suffered from an economic crisis of Depression proportions, and now faces an unprecedented sovereign debt crisis, yet seems paralyzed to do anything to end it.

Meanwhile it still focuses on its oil problems in the Middle East, and on terrorism in Afghanistan, Pakistan and home grown as the real economic history is being made by China and India.

And where economic history goes, political history follows.

HISTORY - PROCESS - POSTWAR

And then there’s the environment.

An equally obvious crisis.

And an equally paralyzed response.

But more on this later.

HISTORY - PROCESS - POSTWAR

Urbanisation, Industrialisation, Demographic Transition

Relationships between these 3 processes shape modern societies.

Is a cause/effect cycle where all elements must stay synchronized for

economic development

to occur.

For the developed world this has occurred over the past 100+ years.

For developing nations, they have occurred over a 20 30 year period - or are in the process of occurring .

developmental problems for virtually all newly industrializing nations.

URBANISATION, DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION, ECONOMIC CHANGE MODEL

The Process of Becoming Urban

Urban areas are not just a matter of the form they take but also of the processes that give rise to them.

They are points of economic and demographic transformation; nodes in the global network of interaction.

They evolve over time in response to economic and technological transformations as we convert resources into lifestyles Had cities for 10,000 years but urbanized for only @300 years.

URBANISATION, DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION, ECONOMIC CHANGE MODEL

Urban Growth versus Urbanisation Urban Growth

Population Growth Rates/Share Total Rural Urban 10,000ya Time

TRANSITION, ECONOMIC CHANGE MODEL

1700s

Urban Growth versus Urbanisation Urbanisation

Total Population Growth Rates/Share Rural Urban 1700s Time

TRANSITION, ECONOMIC CHANGE MODEL

Present

Urbanisation Stages

100% 80% Terminal Stage high levels, low rates Urban Share of Population 20% 0% 10,000ya To 1700 Growth Stage increasing levels, high rates Initial Stage (low levels, low rates 1850-1950 (depends on country) Time

TRANSITION, ECONOMIC CHANGE MODEL

Present

Natural Increase Demographic Transition Model postulates four stages of demographic change premised upon the interplay of birth and death rates and resulting population change.

URBANISATION, DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION, ECONOMIC CHANGE MODEL

Economic transition

reflects the changing employment profile for sectors of the economy and how people earn a living.

URBANISATION, DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION, ECONOMIC CHANGE MODEL

Urbanization (urban transition)

is the process wherein a predominantly rural population migrates to become predominantly urban one.

URBANISATION, DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION, ECONOMIC CHANGE MODEL

The stages of each transition must more or less synchronize for economic development to occur.

URBANISATION, DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION, ECONOMIC CHANGE MODEL

URBANISATION, DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION, ECONOMIC CHANGE MODEL

Space, Geography, Territory

SPACE GEOGRAPHY TERRITORY

Space, Geography, Territory

Territorial Implications:

More and more nations from 1945 as decolonialisation occurs – 56 in 1945 to 193 in 2013.

Geographical Implications:

More complex culture, language, social, religious, economic, legal, boundary landscapes to navigate.

Spatial Implications:

Development of Global Village has led to rapid movement of ideas, money, people, problems, conflicts, both because and in spite of more nations.

SPACE GEOGRAPHY TERRITORY

The Global Village

Marshall McLuhan, technology and the global village (Gutenberg Galaxy, 1962).

Information, ideas, attitudes travel at the speed of light though mass media.

‘Reduces’ the size of the earth to that of the village where everyone knows everyone else’s business.

Results in the demonstration effect and societal homogenization.

Darker side of the global village: Darknet, cyber crime, terror, surveillance, sex tourism, human trafficking, pandemics threat.

SPACE GEOGRAPHY TERRITORY

The Global Village(s)

Also means, for our purposes:

more and smaller nations, and as a result… … more borders and boundaries… … more laws, more rules … … more corruption.

… and thus more ways to circumvent them:

Increase in number of sectoral and regional blocs.

Sophistication of financial sector.

Communications and technology innovations.

Which in turn leads to:

More channels for disease and contraband.

More intra and inter regional conflict.

More disenfranchised groups, leading to… … more terrorism.

SPACE GEOGRAPHY TERRITORY

Recent Historical Reasons for the Global Village…

Technology and transportation advances started during and after WW2: radar/radio technology, computing/data capture, visualization technology, weather prediction, nav systems, sonar, etc.

Transportation technology improved significantly.

Large global movements of people (military, refugees, migration).

Rapid resource extraction, production & consumption.

Growing number of nations new geopolitical interest and often aggressive foreign policy initiatives.

Tourism and its infrastructure also begins to expand rapidly.

SPACE GEOGRAPHY TERRITORY

Why Be A Nation Anyway?

Reasons for wanting to pursue nationhood include:

Virtual abandonment of colonies to fend for themselves after WW2, leading to...

Establishment of corrupt governance → internal strife and civil war, and threatening ↔ neighbors.

Excesses of colonialism and later corporate exploitation leading to … Environmental degradation and health threats.

Well intentioned development initiatives actually lead to dependency, poverty, inequality.

All of which take place in a compressed time line compared to developed world.

The Territorial Imperative – Robert Ardrey

Robert Ardrey (1966): There is an imperative (innate drive) among all animals for territory.

Security

Establish, control, extend, protect space.

Sustenance

Resources, space to grow, population growth.

Sociality

Social interaction (or not) with like-minded individuals.

Self

Personal/social identity terroir(ism?), also private property, consumerism, ownership.

SPACE GEOGRAPHY TERRITORY

Ardrey’s Territorial Imperative Summing Up

The innate desire for a piece of land for sustenance, security, social structure and self… …drives groups of people with a common heritage, language, ethnicity, tribal loyalty, religion, or point of view, to seek… …territorial boundaries within which they can practice their particular way of life.

Globalisation has both enabled and flouted these basic drives.

SPACE GEOGRAPHY TERRITORY

Colonialism De-colonialism Neo-colonialism

Colonialism, De-colonialism, and Neo-colonialism

Colonialism: the political and economic control of another region for the purpose of resource exploitation, security, cultural and/or religious “enlightenment”.

Many clear cut examples of colonialism but sometimes the definitional boundary is blurred: • • • Examples: 1853, Commodore Perry, the U.S. and Japan.

• 1907 U.K. installation of a monarchy in Bhutan.

1970s-80s U.S. Domino Effect foreign policy.

Various recent Middle East military adventures.

• Various corporate resource exploitations.

• The rise of radical Islam.

SPACE GEOGRAPHY TERRITORY COLONIALISM

Decolonialism and the Rise of Modern Nation States

All but 3 (Austria, Germany, China) of the 138 post-war nation states of the world resulted from decolonialisation.

Three major areas and phases:

The Americas, Australia and New Zealand from 1776 to 1900.

Africa, South-East Asia, the Caribbean and Oceania from 1945 to mid-1980s.

The former Soviet Union from 1990.

SPACE GEOGRAPHY TERRITORY COLONIALISM

The Americas, Australia, New Zealand from 1776 to 1900

Between 1776 until 1900 the original one hundred colonies of the Americas gained independence from Britain, Spain, and Portugal.

Likewise in Oceania, Australia and New Zealand also gained independence.

In many cases, notably in the former British colonies, many elected to stay associated with Great Britain in the Commonwealth and still to this day hold the British monarch as their head of state.

SPACE GEOGRAPHY TERRITORY COLONIALISM

Africa, S. Asia, the Caribbean, Oceania from 1945 to 1980

Post Second World War former European colonies in Africa, Asia, Caribbean, South Pacific decolonialised.

Led to many conflicts due to disregard by European colonial administrators of:

Religious, ethnic, tribal and language boundaries.

Cultural and religious icons, traditional customs Nomadic herding and grazing routes.

Water and resource rights.

Lack of administrative/financial resources to survive.

Result:

Corrupt governments (Africa).

Split countries (Korea, Vietnam).

Conflict (just about everywhere).

SPACE GEOGRAPHY TERRITORY - COLONIALISM

The Former Soviet Union from 1990 to the present

Dissolution of the former Soviet Union in 1991 created 15 new nations.

The story began in 1980 with the eventual success in 1989 of the Solidarity Union movement in Gdansk, Poland.

Other former Soviet entities followed suit, including one that actually reduced the number of nations involved by one – the reunification of East and West Germany.

Process still ongoing as former Balkan and South Caucasus states seek independence.

And then there’s Crimea.

SPACE GEOGRAPHY TERRITORY - COLONIALISM

The Colonial World 1492-2007

SPACE GEOGRAPHY TERRITORY COLONIALISM

And then there’s the environment.

Let’s not forget the environment

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Let’s not forget the environment.

Maldives Average height above sea level = 4 feet Highest point = 7 feet 10 inches Lowest country in the world.

Country with the lowest high point.